Межкультурные контакты и креативность: анализ зарубежных подходов
This study examines intercultural relations in the Republic of Dagestan (RD) in the North Caucasus, Russia. RD is the most multicultural and multilingual republic in the Russian Federation. The research used the hypotheses and measures developed in the MIRIPS project (http://www.victoria.ac.nz/cacr/research/mirips). Our goal was to test three hypotheses: the multiculturalism hypothesis, the integration hypothesis, and the contact hypothesis. We also examined the role of a separation strategy in intercultural relations. The sample included members of the largest ethnic groups of RD: Avars (N = 100), Dargins (N = 116), Russians (N = 101) and members of other ethnic groups, such as Kumyks, Lezgins, Tabasarans, (N = 121). Data processing was carried out using structural equation modeling (SEM) separately for the ethnic groups, and simultaneously for the whole sample. The results showed that perceived security promoted support for multicultural ideology, tolerance, and integration among the whole sample. The contact hypothesis was not supported: number and frequency of friendly intercultural contacts had no significant impact on tolerance and integration in the whole sample. Preference for integration promoted life satisfaction and self-esteem in the whole sample. We also found that the separation strategy was positively associated with life satisfaction among members of ethnic groups in RD.
The distractive effects on attentional task performance in different paradigms are analyzed in this paper. I demonstrate how distractors may negatively affect (interference effect), positively (redundancy effect) or neutrally (null effect). Distractor effects described in literature are classified in accordance with their hypothetical source. The general rule of the theory is also introduced. It contains the formal prediction of the particular distractor effect, based on entropy and redundancy measures from the mathematical theory of communication (Shannon, 1948). Single- vs dual-process frameworks are considered for hypothetical mechanisms which underpin the distractor effects. Distractor profiles (DPs) are also introduced for the formalization and simple visualization of experimental data concerning the distractor effects. Typical shapes of DPs and their interpretations are discussed with examples from three frequently cited experiments. Finally, the paper introduces hierarchical hypothesis that states the level-fashion modulating interrelations between distractor effects of different classes.
This article describes the expierence of studying factors influencing the social well-being of educational migrants as mesured by means of a psychological well-being scale (A. Perrudet-Badoux, G.A. Mendelsohn, J.Chiche, 1988) previously adapted for Russian by M.V. Sokolova. A statistical analysis of the scale's reliability is performed. Trends in dynamics of subjective well-being are indentified on the basis the correlations analysis between the condbtbions of adaptation and its success rate, and potential mechanisms for developing subjective well-being among student migrants living in student hostels are described. Particular attention is paid to commuting as a factor of adaptation.