Утилитаризм И. Бентама и Дж. С. Милля: от добродетели к рациональности.
The article is devoted to the utilitarian conversion in the behavior analysis from moral value to rationality in the works of J. Bentham and J. S. Mill. Methodologically, Bentham and Mill restrict the formulation of human ends and moral estimation by the observed facts. From the ethical point of view, happiness is considered as the universal homogeneous aim without any difference between desire and duty. So, the calculation of the long-term and the publically relevant consequences of individual acts constitutes the correct behavior. Finally, utilitarianism focuses on the scientific norm of rationality instead of the virtue as an ethical value.