Постконтрактный оппортунизм на рынке добровольного медицинского страхования
This paper contributes to the discussion on possibilities to reveal ex post moral hazard
in the Russian market for private health insurance. By ‘ex post’ we mean the period
when a health insurance contract is valid. Moral hazard implies risky behavior of a
respondent that increases health care utilization and/or decreases their incentives
to prevent an insured event. In our empirical estimates, we explore the uniqueness
of the Russian data that consists in the fact that many medical organizations provide
services to respondents insured by enterprises. Adverse selection is hardly possible
among such respondents. It gives us the possibility to observe ex post moral hazard,
simply controlling for ex ante moral hazard by the use of individual fixed effects in
panel data models. We use the RLMS-HSE data (2000–2015) for empirical estimates.
We consider doctor visits, tobacco and alcohol consumption, physical exercises, and
self-assessed health (SAH) as moral hazard indicators, estimating ordered choice
regression models for each of the dependent variables mentioned above. To avoid
inconsistency in estimates of parameters caused by the incidental parameter problem,
we use the Blow-Up and Cluster (BUC) estimator. The results show a statistically
significant increase in frequency of visits to the doctor and in alcohol consumption,
as well as a decrease in SAH during the period of insurance. These results could be
useful for insurance companies and could be accounted for in contracts for private
According to the common definition of unemployment, the unemployed are those who are not in paid employment or self-employment, are seeking work and are available for work. А job search model is estimated from a sample of the unemployed and from some extended samples of the jobless, obtained by loosening that definition gradually. Revealed similarities and differences constitute the result of the research.
This paper is devoted to the rational behavior in the sense of the educational level choice. The theoretical model is based on the discounted flow of personal’s utility function covered the period of the education and future work. Maximizing the flow under the budget constraint we received differential equation included the rate of income grow after the acquisition of education. The solution is the Mincerian type equation. The main result of the model is that the persons with rapid growth of their earnings profile should have the smaller slope coefficients of schooling in the earnings equation. The empirical part of the research is based on the Russian Longitudinal Monitoring Survey (RLMS) data set. The theoretical results have been confirmed by the regression analysis. Splitting the RLMS sample according to the respondents’ wage profiles we received that highly educated agents unlike the unskilled workers have higher income but slighter slope earnings profiles. It means that the workers expected the high growth of their incomes after the schooling are less inclined to receive higher level of education. Otherwise the persons who expected high income on the job start justify their hopes, but come across the low growth of the incomes.
The dominating goal of the research is to analyze the factors, creating incentives to manipulate the economic and political environment to increase personal wealth. Empirical part of the research is mainly based on the data of the "Russia Longitudinal Monitoring survey, RLMS-HSE”-2006
McGuire acknowledges support from the Linda and John Arnold Foundation. This collaborative project was inspired by the Risk Adjustment Network (RAN) members who contributed as chapter authors and commenters. Sarah Stone devoted part of her Summer 2017 to helping edit the chapters when they were arriving fast and furious. We are grateful to her for skilled help at a critical time. Most gratitude is due to our colleagues from around the world who took the time to assemble such an authoritative set of chapters, and to put up with our repeated calls for revisions. Finally, the editors thank Elsevier’s Susan Ikeda for her guidance and assistance throughout the logistically complex writing and production process.
In this paper the public-private wage gap is estimated by means both of the OLS and the quantile regression, which will provide a more complex picture of the distribution of the public-private sector wage gap. The author finds the existence of significant public-private wage gap (about 30%) considering both observable and unobservable characteristics of workers and jobs. Using the decomposition based on quantile regression helps to answer the question about the nature of the wage differences. The author comes to the conclusion that the main reason for the gap is the institutional mechanisms of public sector wages in Russia. The analysis is based on the data from Russian Longitudinal Monitoring Survey (RLMS-HSE) 2000-2010.
In this work the demand for the incoming tourism in the Russian Federation is modeling. The panel data for 16 countries - the basic sources of tourist streams - and the period with 2000 for 2009 are used. Modeling is spent separately for each of 10 tourist zones of Russia. In quality a determinant of demand there are considered a total national product in a country of origin, the exchange rate, transport charges, cost of residing, lag of the demand variable and the fictitious variables reflecting influence of shocks in quality a determinants of demand. The received estimations of dynamic models of demand correspond to expectations, are statistically significant and can be useful in practice of planning of development of entrance tourism in various municipal formations and regions of Russia.
Smoking is a problem, bringing signifi cant social and economic costs to Russiansociety. However, ratifi cation of the World health organization Framework conventionon tobacco control makes it possible to improve Russian legislation accordingto the international standards. So, I describe some measures that should be taken bythe Russian authorities in the nearest future, and I examine their effi ciency. By studyingthe international evidence I analyze the impact of the smoke-free areas, advertisementand sponsorship bans, tax increases, etc. on the prevalence of smoking, cigaretteconsumption and some other indicators. I also investigate the obstacles confrontingthe Russian authorities when they introduce new policy measures and the public attitudetowards these measures. I conclude that there is a number of easy-to-implementanti-smoking activities that need no fi nancial resources but only a political will.
One of the most important indicators of company's success is the increase of its value. The article investigates traditional methods of company's value assessment and the evidence that the application of these methods is incorrect in the new stage of economy. So it is necessary to create a new method of valuation based on the new main sources of company's success that is its intellectual capital.