Кадровая политика в здравоохранении: как преодолеть дефицит врачей
This article analyses the interrelation between human resource policies and educational policies in the system of healthcare provision to solve the problem of the structural imbalance in the supply of physicians. International experience reveals a growing emphasis on policies which help maintain the optimal structure of medical workers, i.e. the structure that corresponds to the needs of the healthcare system and society as a whole. Such policies include new regulatory and planning mechanisms for medical schools, the regulation of admission plans and the specialization structure in postgraduate medical education, specific post-education employment practices, and measures to overcome the shortage of supply of some categories of physicians and their geographic misbalance. In Russia, the structural component of human resource policies and educational policies has clearly weakened. The current regulatory and planning methods tend to reproduce the accumulated structural imbalances. Regulatory measures to improve the quality of the training of physicians are still ineffective. No prospective planning exists. Postgraduate training is poorly oriented towards the specializations currently in short supply. Medical schools are interested in training physicians capable of paying for their education and the government does not have the instruments to manipulate the structure of the student body. Recent attempts to improve the situation have not resulted in any positive outcomes yet. The decision to accredit graduates for practicing in primary care without postgraduate training will most likely deteriorate the quality of healthcare. Based on international experience, the authors suggest new regulatory mechanisms.
In this paper we propose the software system CORDIET-Helthcare which we are currently developing in collaboration with the Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Moscow Higher School of Economics and the GZA-hospital group located in Antwerp. The main aim of this system is to offer healthcare management staff a user-friendly and powerful data analysis environment. Using state of the art techniques from computer science and mathematics we show how CORDIET-Helthcare can be used to gain insight in existing care processes and reveal actionable knowledge which can be used to improve the current way of working.
Transition used to be seen as a unidirectional process: from plan to market, from public to private, from collective to individual. This research, on the contrary, focuses on the process of re-transition from over-marketization to a new form of state regulation in China's healthcare sector. Such process started in 2002 and included attempts to make provision of healthcare service a publicly funded industry. The new reform in China's healthcare sector is presented as a process of development of four medical insurance nets, namely UEBMI, NCMS, URBMI and BMI for migrant workers, and their subsequent integration into a universal coverage plan adopted in March 2009. It is demonstrated that after more than 20 years of marketization, Chinese leaders attempt to reengage with healthcare sector and make it effective instrument of state building.
The book presents the most important aspects of safe digital image workflows, starting from the basic practical implications and gradually uncovering the underlying concepts and algorithms. With an easy-to-follow, down-to-earth presentation style, the text helps you to optimize your diagnostic imaging projects and connect the dots of medical informatics.
Many mid-income countries face a significant and challenging problem of low educational achievement. This research looks at a Full-Time Primary Schools Programme implemented in Mexico, to work out if extending the time pupils spend at school can enhance skills in language and mathematics. The results of matching plus difference-in-differences point to a positive impact on schools value-added. The effects are concentrated among poorer schools, with gains after policy adoption of 0.11 standard deviations (SD) in both subjects. However, quantile regressions show that the lowest-performance schools are not benefiting from longer school days, posing questions on programme effectiveness to improve the achievement of those who are more in need. Analysis of causal channels suggests that gains reported by the programme do not come from changes in the composition of teachers and pupils in treated schools, and that richer schools are more prone to devote the extra-time of instruction to non-core subjects, notably sports and arts.
The paper examines the structure, governance, and balance sheets of state-controlled banks in Russia, which accounted for over 55 percent of the total assets in the country's banking system in early 2012. The author offers a credible estimate of the size of the country's state banking sector by including banks that are indirectly owned by public organizations. Contrary to some predictions based on the theoretical literature on economic transition, he explains the relatively high profitability and efficiency of Russian state-controlled banks by pointing to their competitive position in such functions as acquisition and disposal of assets on behalf of the government. Also suggested in the paper is a different way of looking at market concentration in Russia (by consolidating the market shares of core state-controlled banks), which produces a picture of a more concentrated market than officially reported. Lastly, one of the author's interesting conclusions is that China provides a better benchmark than the formerly centrally planned economies of Central and Eastern Europe by which to assess the viability of state ownership of banks in Russia and to evaluate the country's banking sector.
The paper examines the principles for the supervision of financial conglomerates proposed by BCBS in the consultative document published in December 2011. Moreover, the article proposes a number of suggestions worked out by the authors within the HSE research team.
The article is devoted to the study of the authoritarianism prevalent in the mass consciousness of Russians. The article describes a new approach to the consideration of the authoritarian syndrome as the effects of the cultural trauma as a result of political and socio-cultural transformation of society. The article shows the dynamics of the symptoms of the authoritarianism, which appear in the mass consciousness of Russians from 1993 to 2011. This paper proposes a package of measures aimed at reducing the level of the authoritarianism in Russian society.
This work looks at a model of spatial election competition with two candidates who can spend effort in order to increase their popularity through advertisement. It is shown that under certain condition the political programs of the candidates will be different. The work derives the comparative statics of equilibrium policy platform and campaign spending with respect the distribution of voter policy preferences and the proportionality of the electoral system. In particular, it is whown that the equilibrium does not exist if the policy preferences are distributed over too narrow an interval.
The article examines "regulatory requirements" as a subject of state control over business in Russia. The author deliberately does not use the term "the rule of law". The article states that a set of requirements for business is wider than the legislative regulation.
First, the article analyzes the regulatory nature of the requirements, especially in the technical field. The requirements are considered in relation to the rule of law. The article explores approaches to the definition of regulatory requirements in Russian legal science. The author analyzes legislation definitions for a set of requirements for business. The author concludes that regulatory requirements are not always identical to the rule of law. Regulatory requirements are a set of obligatory requirements for entrepreneurs’ economic activity. Validation failure leads to negative consequences.
Second, the article analyzes the problems of the regulatory requirements in practice. Lack of information about the requirements, their irrelevance and inconsistency are problems of the regulatory requirements in Russia.
Many requirements regulating economic activity are not compatible with the current development level of science and technology. The problems are analyzed on the basis of the Russian judicial practice and annual monitoring reports by Higher School of Economics.
Finally, the author provides an approach to the possible solution of the regulatory requirements’ problem. The author proposes to create a nationwide Internet portal about regulatory requirements. The portal should contain full information about all regulatory requirements. The author recommends extending moratorium on the use of the requirements adopted by the bodies and organizations of the former USSR government.