Роль образа Πότνιος Ἳππιος («Владыка коней») в искусстве евразийских степей и античного мира в первой половине I тыс. до н. э. как этнокультурного и социального маркера
The image of Πότνιος Ἳππιος occurs both in the 1st millennium BC petroglyphs of Eurasian steppes and in 8-century-BC vase paintings of Attica and Argos. Imagery created in different territories during that period features identical and repetitive iconographic schemes, similar up to a single detail (first of all, in shapes of headdresses, haircuts, etc.). Similar images of Πότνιος Ἳππιος in different cultures testifies to the importance of this type of imagery as a recorder of an important mythologem. It might also be linked to the particularities of culture genesis in Attica and Argos and can testify to the use of this imagery as ethnic-cultural and social markers.
The article is a historiographical and theoretical overview of the basic concepts of the genesis of ancient Greek philosophy in the Russian and Soviet philosophical literature 19–20th centuries. The author recalls that the first information about the ancient world appeared in Russia in the 10th century, and indicates the scientific study of ancient Greek philosophy in Russia began only in the 19th century. One of the first original research in this area belonged to the O. Novitsky. He put forward the idea of the development of Greek philosophy from mythology and religion. This concept was developed to creatively S. Trubetskoy. He argued that the philosophy of the Greeks is a special phase of their religious ideas.
The class approach has dominated in the Soviet history of philosophy, and it required to consider the philosophy of the ancient Greeks as a direct reflection of the contemporary level of development of the productive forces. Concepts of philosophy genesis conformed with the requirements of the political situation. Thus, the epistemogeneous concept corresponded to the Communist Party course to struggle against religious vestiges in Soviet society and apologetics myth in a bourgeois political thought. According to this concept philosophy arose from science as opposed to religion and the fight against it. And hypothesis of oriental responsible policy of rapprochement with the countries of the Third World and criticism of eurocentrism. This concept is emphasized oriental influences on Greek philosophy.
In the late 1950s – early 1960s, there is a number of original concepts, operating Marxist methodology as a lively and plastic material. One of the greatest historians of philosophy was A.F. Losev, who created a distinctive methodology for the study of the genesis of philosophy. Interesting theory offered J.E. Golosovker, A.N. Chanyshev, F.C. Kessidy and other scientists. Philosophical debates have become more vivid character and the theoretical value.
The author emphasizes that the conflicting approaches to the problem of the origin of ancient Greek philosophy are attempts to answer the questions of profound character. The debate between supporters of autochthonous and Oriental hypotheses about external sources of Greek philosophy is designed to answer the question: “how and where philosophy emerged?” The question “from what is philosophy emerged?” defined the content of the controversy between the adherents mythogeneous and epistemogeneous concepts concerning the spiritual sources of philosophy. And finally, the question of “how and why philosophy emerged?” accompanied by discussions about social, ontological and other conditions of the emergence of philosophy.
The author argues that the last point in this debate is unlikely to be delivered, because to find the solution to the problem of the genesis of philosophy – it is important to solve the question of philosophy: what is philosophy?
The article deals with fundamental political notions in which reflected the crucial stages of the polis evolution.
Modern scholars study different types of time (mythological, philosophical, literary, astronomical) in Ancient Greek heritage according to the disciplinary principle. Nevertheless, such approach is determined by contemporary situation and not by the factual condition of intellectual sphere of Ancient Greece. The author tries to define some specific features of Greek understanding of temporality and elaborates a theme, which shows the rootedness of ancient Greek philosophy of time in a broader intellectual context.
This article is about historiography. The main point of it is to show the influence of Mitford’s political views on content of his work. The range of different typical stories from Athens history of V-th century BC were considered, for example struggle of two political forces of that time, which Mitford named “aristoctatical party ” and “democratical party ”. We could say that English historian extrapolates the political system of his day Britain at that time Athens. Therefore Mitford didn’t disguise his sympathies to aristocrat Kimon’s politicalforce, because he was torie. Foreign policy of Athens was also considered in this article, especially creation of Delian League and its ambitions, which were supported by Mitford, because Britain had already started new phase of their colonization.
This article represents the historiographical and theoretical overview of the views of Greek thinkers from Pythagoras to the representatives of Greek Patristics regarding the question of origination of the philosophy.
The author ascertains that among the Greek thinkers were prevailing the supporters of so-called adoptive hypothesis, according to which philosophy was borrowed from other nations. Many of the ancient authors believed that oriental wisdom was perceived by the Greek philosophers during their “philosophical journeys” to Egypt, Babylonia, Persia; or brought to Greece by the descendants from remote lands. The representatives of Greek Patristics, as well as Jewish apologists, in turn, were finding the origins of Hellenic wisdom in the ancient Biblical texts. Usually, Greeks considered similar borrowings as blessing for their culture. Opinions of the ancients also divided with regards to the religious source of philosophy. The main conclusion of this research lies in the fact that the task for reconstructing the system of representations of the ancient Greeks on the genesis of philosophy remains relevant to this day, as it opens the opportunity to answer the question on the formation of metaphysical foundation of the entire European civilization.