Партнерство государства и благотворительных фондов как стратегия повышения ресурсной обеспеченности некоммерческих организаций
While public funding of nongovernmental organizations is a highly sought-after
form of NGO support, its amount still does not meet the demand. International experi-
ence provides examples of solutions to this problem. Instead of transferring the grant-
making function to designated operators, the state encourages grantmaking foundations
to leverage their assets, both financial and institutional, within the framework of phil-
anthropic-government partnerships. This paper aims to explore and synthesize interna-
tional best practices of joining resources of the state and charitable foundations, which
results in a tangible increase in NGO financial support and its effectiveness. The paper
focuses on partnership models, such as engaging foundations in grant-making and le-
veraging resources with government; government match-funding programs to incentiv-
ize private donations to charitable foundations; developing various types of institutional
partnerships between the state and foundations. Civil society monitoring conducted in
2015 and 2016 by the HSE Center for Studies of Civil Society and the Nonprofit Sector
helped expose challenges and barriers that make philanthropic-government partnerships
difficult to initiate and manage. Analysis of the international experience of coping with
these challenges has helped to propose measures to overcome such barriers in the Russian
context. Examples include the use of innovative tools, such as leveraging resources of the
state and foundations for grantmaking purposes within the framework of philanthropic-
government partnerships; introducing a ratio of government match funding to attract
private donations in the priority areas of education, research and culture; developing vari-
ous institutional arrangements to ensure effective collaboration between foundations and
government agencies (joint councils, task forces, discussion platforms, etc.)
This review is devoted to the history of foreign and Russian women’s charity from the first centuries of Christian history to the present day. After the first two centuries of Christianity deaconnesses started instructed women, visited the sick, the poor, and Christians in prisons. In the age of the Crusades women began to found spiritual communes, the first commune was established in XII century in Belgium. Such movement became widespead in European countries in middle ages and modern history. In XX-XXI centuries this work goes on. Mother Teresa of Calcutta, Diana, Princess of Wales, actress Audrey Hupburn and others involve in humanitarian activity and social activism. In Russia Christianity charity developed in a special direction: love for the poor. Kievan Rus had the most well-organised system of in medieval Europe. The history of charitable organisations in Russia can be divided into two stages. The first stage, from mid-16th century to 1862, is the period when charitable organisations were establishing themselves in Russia. The second period, from 1862 to 1906, is the golden age of Russian societies of charity and mercy. Our contemporaries continue the traditions of charity. Among them we can name Raisa Gorbacheva, Russian actresses, Chulpan Khamatova and Dina Korzun, Natalia Vodianova and other.
The collection of papers includes the articles, which examine some of the most actual problems of the modern Chinese studies. Among these problems are the connections between our two contries in the period, when the Chinese Communist Party came to power, and on the modern stage, the problems of formation and development of Chinese "global cities", the development of the law in the PRC, the history of the Guomindang, history and modern condition of the Chinese armed forces.
The stereotype content model (SCM), originating in the United States and generalized across nearly 50 countries, has yet to address ethnic relations in one of the world’s most influential nations. Russia and the United States are somewhat alike (large, powerful, immigrant-receiving), but differ in other ways relevant to intergroup images (culture, religions, ideology, and history). Russian ethnic stereotypes are understudied, but significant for theoretical breadth and practical politics. This research tested the SCM on ethnic stereotypes in a Russian sample (N = 1115). Study 1 (N = 438) produced an SCM map of the sixty most numerous domestic ethnic groups (both ethnic minorities and immigrants). Four clusters occupied the SCM warmth-by-competence space. Study 2 (N = 677) compared approaches to ethnic stereotypes in terms of status and competition, cultural distance, perceived region, and four intergroup threats. Using the same Study 1 groups, the Russian SCM map showed correlated warmth and competence, with few ambivalent stereotypes. As the SCM predicts, status predicted competence, and competition negatively predicted warmth. Beyond the SCM, status and property threat both were robust antecedents for both competence and warmth for all groups. Besides competition, cultural distance also negatively predicted warmth for all groups. The role of the other antecedents, as expected, varied from group to group. To examine relative impact, a network analysis demonstrated that status, competition, and property threat centrally influence many other variables in the networks. The SCM, along with antecedents from other models, describes Russian ethnic-group images. This research contributes: (1) a comparison of established approaches to ethnic stereotypes (from acculturation and intergroup relations) showing the stability of the main SCM predictions; (2) network structures of the multivariate dependencies of the considered variables; (3) systematically cataloged images of ethnic groups in Russia for further comparisons, illuminating the Russian historical, societal, and interethnic context.
We integrated models of discrimination of immigrants by combining established approaches to prejudice and discrimination towards immigrants (proximate explanations) using assumptions of Evolutionary-Coalitional Theory (ultimate explanations). Based on this perspective, right-wing authoritarianism (RWA), social dominance orientation (SDO), and multicultural ideology (MCI) were considered as sociofunctional motives for attitudes towards immigrants. We examined relationships between individual differences in beliefs about the social world (dangerous worldview and competitive worldview) as more distal antecedents, and RWA, SDO, and MCI as more proximal antecedents, and the endorsement of discrimination of immigrants in the socioeconomic domain by Russian majority group members as the outcome. Data were collected among 576 participants from 33 regions in Russia, using online social media. MCI predicted endorsement of discrimination of immigrants by Russian majority group members better than did RWA and SDO. SDO predicted only economic aspects of the endorsement of discrimination. The results are discussed within the Russian context, with its ethnically diverse composition of the population and high migration rates.
The article is devoted to the study of the authoritarianism prevalent in the mass consciousness of Russians. The article describes a new approach to the consideration of the authoritarian syndrome as the effects of the cultural trauma as a result of political and socio-cultural transformation of society. The article shows the dynamics of the symptoms of the authoritarianism, which appear in the mass consciousness of Russians from 1993 to 2011. This paper proposes a package of measures aimed at reducing the level of the authoritarianism in Russian society.
This work looks at a model of spatial election competition with two candidates who can spend effort in order to increase their popularity through advertisement. It is shown that under certain condition the political programs of the candidates will be different. The work derives the comparative statics of equilibrium policy platform and campaign spending with respect the distribution of voter policy preferences and the proportionality of the electoral system. In particular, it is whown that the equilibrium does not exist if the policy preferences are distributed over too narrow an interval.
The article examines "regulatory requirements" as a subject of state control over business in Russia. The author deliberately does not use the term "the rule of law". The article states that a set of requirements for business is wider than the legislative regulation.
First, the article analyzes the regulatory nature of the requirements, especially in the technical field. The requirements are considered in relation to the rule of law. The article explores approaches to the definition of regulatory requirements in Russian legal science. The author analyzes legislation definitions for a set of requirements for business. The author concludes that regulatory requirements are not always identical to the rule of law. Regulatory requirements are a set of obligatory requirements for entrepreneurs’ economic activity. Validation failure leads to negative consequences.
Second, the article analyzes the problems of the regulatory requirements in practice. Lack of information about the requirements, their irrelevance and inconsistency are problems of the regulatory requirements in Russia.
Many requirements regulating economic activity are not compatible with the current development level of science and technology. The problems are analyzed on the basis of the Russian judicial practice and annual monitoring reports by Higher School of Economics.
Finally, the author provides an approach to the possible solution of the regulatory requirements’ problem. The author proposes to create a nationwide Internet portal about regulatory requirements. The portal should contain full information about all regulatory requirements. The author recommends extending moratorium on the use of the requirements adopted by the bodies and organizations of the former USSR government.