‘The magic on the sea shore’: The manor of Schloss Fall and the navigation in the Gulf of Finland in the nineteenth century
This research note focuses on the numerous links between the coastal noble estate of Schloss Fall and the development of shipping in the adjacent zone of the Gulf of Finland during the nineteenth century. It therefore expands the traditional perspective of ‘maritimeness’ – maritime culture and identity – in relation to Ostzee province in the north-western part of the Russian Empire. Here, the local manorial culture was an inseparable element of the multifaceted interaction between the sea and the everyday practices of coastal inhabitants.
The application of «protective reservations» is a fundamental principle of modern codifications of the private international law. The post-graduate student of the Private International Law Department, Faculty of Laws, National Research University «The Higher School of Economics», the advocate E.A. Kruty (e-mail: email@example.com) minutely analyses provisions about the reservation about the public policy and mandatory rules which are included in the international acts and ten national codifications of XXI centuries (Azerbaijan, Lithuania, Estonia, Mongolia, Russia, Belgium, Bulgaria, Ukraine, Macedonia, Turkey). Despite the apparent prevalence of the negative construction of the reservation about the public policy the lawmaker prefers in some situations its positive variant. An appeal to codifications allows to identify the certain conditions on which protective reservations take effect. Their most detailed description is contained in the Belgian and Bulgarian codes. Not less interesting is a regulation of the legal consequences coming as a result of application of these legal institutions for private legal relations with a foreign element including in the international civil procedure.
‘Degeneracy and Abuse: Attitudes to Violence Against Parents in Nineteenth-Century Russia’ by Marianna Muravyeva picks up on the consequent changes in the understanding of parricide as a mental and medical problem. Muravyeva highlights the shift in explanations of parricide that occurred in the nineteenth century, when it became a focus of degeneracy theory. Treating parricide as a consequence of the perpetrator’s mental illness due to the possession of a degenerate heritage provided a pacifying explanation for both the community and the authorities, meaning they would not have to deal with the greater problems brought about by changes in family organization and relationships occurring at the heart of the modernizing society.
SOVIET ECONOMIC MODEL: UNION CENTER AND THE BALTIC REPUBLICS 1953 to March 1965 For the first time ever, this collection of documents offers its readers a whole range of sources on economic history of the Baltic republics. These documents will give the reader a picture of the main trends, problems and achievements of national economies of the Baltic republics, their interaction with the union Center, decision coordination mechanisms, conflicts and controversies accompanying these relationships.
The paper is the first to the knowledge of the authors to apply copula models to reconstructing joint distribution of time charter rates for dry bulk ship. Based on the Clarksons dataset for the last 20 years it is claimed that Gumbel copula is enough to perform the mentioned objective. To arrive at the conclusion the homogenous dataset in terms of copula structural shifts’ absence is used; a system of criteria for copula selection based on goodness-of-forecast criteria is implemented. The evidence suggests dry bulk time charter rates weekly returns exhibit symmetric distribution.
As an auxiliary output stands for the result of copula fit accounting for time dynamics and not. For the purpose of conservative analysis (i.e. risk-management) approach disregarding time-dynamics should be preferred as yielding the least number of value-at-risk breaches. From the risk budgeting perspective non-conservative approach (accounting for time dynamics) might be preferred as reflecting the rapidly changing value-at-risk.
This article focuses on the governing system of the mitigation of eutrophication in the Baltic Sea. Policies and measures of the Baltic Sea coastal countries, the macro--regional (HELCOM) level, and the level of the European Union are described and governance challenges explicated. We found that the main challenges at different governance levels include: differences between coastal countries in terms of environmental conditions including environmental awareness, overlaps of policies between different levels, the lack of adequate spatial and temporal specification of policies, and the lack of policy integration. To help to meet these challenges, we suggest closer involvement of stakeholders and the public, the improvement of the interplay of institutions, and the introduction of a “primus motor” for the governance of the mitigation of eutrophication in the Baltic Sea.
Educational reforms is often aimed at building social cohesion or aligning one part of an education system with another. School curriculum reform is one possible way for disseminating what society would like to be taught in every school in a country. However, merely the introduction of reforms is not enough if they would not come true in schools’ day-to-day process. On a country level, the data on what is taking place in schools are usually difficult to relate with what was proposed by the reforms, especially with attainment. Using a natural experiment situation, this chapter describes the process of curriculum reform in Russian-medium schools in Latvia and Estonia. The research question focuses on whether those curriculum reforms were successful from the perspective of schools interiorization of new curriculum and PISA performance improvement. Using the three-layered curriculum (intended, implemented, and attained curriculum) approach, this study analyses how the intentions from the laws and other reform-related documents were implemented in everyday school practice and are reflected in attained educational results. For addressing this issue, a series of in-depth interviews in Russian-medium schools, in conjunction with the PISA 2003-2012 trends analysis, were conducted. The results showed that intended and attained curricula have become closer in both countries. Schools actively implement proposed teaching, and PISA performance has been constantly increasing, showing that the attained curriculum is approaching what it is intended to be, though this process is different in the two countries.