### Article

## Sparse covariance matrix estimation in high-dimensional deconvolution

We study the estimation of the covariance matrix Σ of a p-dimensional nor- mal random vector based on n independent observations corrupted by additive noise. Only a general nonparametric assumption is imposed on the distribution of the noise without any sparsity constraint on its covariance matrix. In this high-dimensional semiparametric deconvolution problem, we propose spectral thresholding estimators that are adaptive to the sparsity of Σ. We establish an oracle inequality for these estimators under model miss- specification and derive non-asymptotic minimax convergence rates that are shown to be logarithmic in log p/n. We also discuss the estimation of low-rank matrices based on indi- rect observations as well as the generalization to elliptical distributions. The finite sample performance of the threshold estimators is illustrated in a numerical example.