Bridging S&T and innovation in Russia: A historical perspective
This paper analyzes the numerous governments' attempts to build a bridge between science and innovation, starting from the times of the Russian Empire up to the present day. We argue that throughout the whole history of Russian science, the government, being the main driver of scientific development, has largely failed to organize knowledge transfers and incentivize companies to innovate. The empirical evidence shows that nowadays only a very small share of Russian manufacturing enterprises considers R&D cooperation with knowledge producers important and only this small minority benefits from the government's science, technology and innovation (STI) policies. The reasons behind this remain an underdeveloped institutional setting and a lack of market competition.
The paper discusses social aspects of higher education institutions engagement with their regional communities. On the basis of the cases of the Russian Siberian and Southern Federal Universities the author analyzes practices and formats of their interaction with different regional stakeholders as part of the FUs' social function implementation. The FU's capacity to enhance their third mission is assessed. The author suggests a set of indicators to assess universities social activities impact on development of the regions, and puts forward recommendations on building the federal universities capacity for fulfilling their third role. The paper is prepared within the framework of the Ministry of Education and Science project "Organizational and analytical support to the national priority project "Education" on activities aimed at "Development of Federal Universities", carried out by the National Training Foundation.
The article considers the issues of business competition and cooperation. There presented the market type matrix based on «cooperation-competition» criteria. The concepts of competition marketing and relations with competitors are defined. The concept of marketing communications is specified. The analysis of the main methods of cooperation is carried out.
The book is dedicated to the 100th anniversary of Russian parliamentarism. The analysis of historical experience and actual problems of development of parliamentarism in Russia, Germany and a number of other European countries is presented. The authors are leading Russian and foreign experts from a number of research centers in Russia and Europe. Materials on the analysis of the development of parliamentarism in Germany and other European countries are based on the results of the European project "Parliamentary representation in Europe: recruiting and the career of legislators in 1848-2005", implemented during the last decade.
The book is addressed to a wide range of readers - scientists, politicians, public servants, teachers and students, everyone who is interested in the history and modern experience of Russian and European parliamentarism.
This is the second volume in a series of five books bringing together the results of intensive research on the national systems of innovation (NSI) in the BRICS countries – Brazil, Russia, India, China, and South Africa. This book analyses the co-evolution of inequality and NSI across the BRICS economies. Inequality and Development Challenges argues that inequalities (assets, access to basic services, infrastructure, knowledge, race, gender, ethnicity, and geographic location) that go beyond the aspects of income, must be factored into development strategies since the benefits of innovation are not distributed equally. It combines original and detailed data, making this book an invaluable resource for researchers and scholars in economics, development studies and political science, as well as policymakers and development practitioners interested in the BRICS countries.
Chapter 6 presents an analysis of Russian innovation system accompanied by an overview of state science, technology and innovation (STI) policy practice.
The authors cover the most urgent institutional cleavages, including the split-offs of science and industry, issues of institutional model of the R&D sector, sectoral discrepancies and regional polarization.
An outline of STI policy framework evolution is presented, including the most recent Strategy for Socio-Economic Development of Russia till 2020 topics. A special regard is paid to linkage-stimulating policy instruments, including grants for joint research for Universities, R&D organisations and companies, technology platforms, regional innovation clusters program and elaboration of innovation development plans for state-owned companies.
Over the last two decades national policy makers drew special attention to the implementation of policy tools which foster international cooperation in the fields of science, technology, and innovation. In this paper, we look at cases of Russian-German collaboration to examine the initiatives of the Russian government aimed at stimulating the innovation activity of domestic corporations and small and medium enterprises. The data derived from the interviews with companies’ leaders show positive effects of bilateral innovative projects on the overall business performance alongside with major barriers hindering international cooperation. To overcome these barriers we provide specific suggestions relevant to the recently developed Russian Innovation Strategy 2020.
Research evaluation recently became a widely disseminated exercise aimed in the end of the day at improving the cost efficiency of public funding of national R&D sectors. In November 2013, the Government of the Russian Federation initiated a national evaluation exercise of public research institutions (PRIs) to provide information basis for development of S&T policies aimed at increasing effectiveness and strengthening the role of R&D performing institutions in economic and social development. The aim of this paper is that of providing an approach for multidimensional assessment of R&D performance based on quantitative data derived from the national evaluation exercise, specifically looking at its applicability and limitations for further analysis and preliminary differentiation of PRIs as well as for use in policymaking.
The article reviews the development of Soviet psychology at the beginning of the 20th century and its contemporary school viewed through the prism of thriving global psychology. The development process is considered to be influencing the establishment of operational approach in Soviet education.
This illuminating book combines theory and practice to analyze the experiences and impacts of foresight activities in various European countries. It includes case studies with a focus on different societal issues including national development, science and technology, and sustainable development.
The paper examines the structure, governance, and balance sheets of state-controlled banks in Russia, which accounted for over 55 percent of the total assets in the country's banking system in early 2012. The author offers a credible estimate of the size of the country's state banking sector by including banks that are indirectly owned by public organizations. Contrary to some predictions based on the theoretical literature on economic transition, he explains the relatively high profitability and efficiency of Russian state-controlled banks by pointing to their competitive position in such functions as acquisition and disposal of assets on behalf of the government. Also suggested in the paper is a different way of looking at market concentration in Russia (by consolidating the market shares of core state-controlled banks), which produces a picture of a more concentrated market than officially reported. Lastly, one of the author's interesting conclusions is that China provides a better benchmark than the formerly centrally planned economies of Central and Eastern Europe by which to assess the viability of state ownership of banks in Russia and to evaluate the country's banking sector.
The paper examines the principles for the supervision of financial conglomerates proposed by BCBS in the consultative document published in December 2011. Moreover, the article proposes a number of suggestions worked out by the authors within the HSE research team.
We address the external effects on public sector efficiency measures acquired using Data Envelopment Analysis. We use the health care system in Russian regions in 2011 to evaluate modern approaches to accounting for external effects. We propose a promising method of correcting DEA efficiency measures. Despite the multiple advantages DEA offers, the usage of this approach carries with it a number of methodological difficulties. Accounting for multiple factors of efficiency calls for more complex methods, among which the most promising are DMU clustering and calculating local production possibility frontiers. Using regression models for estimate correction requires further study due to possible systematic errors during estimation. A mixture of data correction and DMU clustering together with multi-stage DEA seems most promising at the moment. Analyzing several stages of transforming society’s resources into social welfare will allow for picking out the weak points in a state agency’s work.