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## The KLS Isoperimetric Conjecture for Generalized Orlicz Balls

What is the optimal way to cut a convex bounded domain K in Euclidean space (Rn,|⋅|) into two halves of equal volume, so that the interface between the two halves has least surface area? A conjecture of Kannan, Lov\'asz and Simonovits asserts that, if one does not mind gaining a universal numerical factor (independent of n) in the surface area, one might as well dissect K using a hyperplane. This conjectured essential equivalence between the former non-linear isoperimetric inequality and its latter linear relaxation, has been shown over the last two decades to be of fundamental importance to the understanding of volumetric and spectral properties of convex domains. In this work, we address the conjecture for the subclass of generalized Orlicz balls

K={x∈Rn;∑i=1nVi(xi)≤E},

confirming its validity for certain levels E∈R under a mild technical assumption on the growth of the convex functions Vi at infinity (without which we confirm the conjecture up to a log(1+n) factor). In sharp contrast to previous approaches for tackling the KLS conjecture, we emphasize that no symmetry is required from K. This significantly enlarges the subclass of convex bodies for which the conjecture is confirmed.

In this paper we derive a sharp concentration inequality for the supremum of a smooth random field over a finite dimensional set. It is shown that this supremum can be bounded with high probability by the value of the field at some deterministic point plus an intrinsic dimension of the optimization problem. As an application we prove the exponential inequality for a function of the maximal eigenvalue of a random matrix.

We generalize the classical Hardy and Faber-Krahn inequalities to arbitrary functions on a convex body Ω ⊂ R n , not necessarily vanishing on the boundary ∂Ω. This reduces the study of the Neumann Poincar´e constant on Ω to that of the cone and Lebesgue measures on ∂Ω; these may be bounded via the curvature of ∂Ω. A second reduction is obtained to the class of harmonic functions on Ω. We also study the relation between the Poincar´e constant of a log-concave measure µ and its associated K. Ball body Kµ. In particular, we obtain a simple proof of a conjecture of Kannan–Lov´asz–Simonovits for unit-balls of ℓ n p , originally due to Sodin and Lata la–Wojtaszczyk.

This paper is devoted to uniform versions of the Hanson-Wright inequality for a random vector X∈RnX∈Rn with independent subgaussian components. The core technique of the paper is based on the entropy method combined with truncations of both gradients of functions of interest and of the components of XX itself. Our results recover, in particular, the classic uniform bound of Talagrand [28] for Rademacher chaoses and the more recent uniform result of Adamczak [2] which holds under certain rather strong assumptions on the distribution of XX. We provide several applications of our techniques: we establish a version of the standard Hanson-Wright inequality, which is tighter in some regimes. Extending our results we show a version of the dimension-free matrix Bernstein inequality that holds for random matrices with a subexponential spectral norm. We apply the derived inequality to the problem of covariance estimation with missing observations and prove an almost optimal high probability version of the recent result of Lounici [21]. Finally, we show a uniform Hanson-Wright-type inequality in the Ising model under Dobrushin’s condition. A closely related question was posed by Marton [22].

A model for organizing cargo transportation between two node stations connected by a railway line which contains a certain number of intermediate stations is considered. The movement of cargo is in one direction. Such a situation may occur, for example, if one of the node stations is located in a region which produce raw material for manufacturing industry located in another region, and there is another node station. The organization of freight traﬃc is performed by means of a number of technologies. These technologies determine the rules for taking on cargo at the initial node station, the rules of interaction between neighboring stations, as well as the rule of distribution of cargo to the ﬁnal node stations. The process of cargo transportation is followed by the set rule of control. For such a model, one must determine possible modes of cargo transportation and describe their properties. This model is described by a ﬁnite-dimensional system of diﬀerential equations with nonlocal linear restrictions. The class of the solution satisfying nonlocal linear restrictions is extremely narrow. It results in the need for the “correct” extension of solutions of a system of diﬀerential equations to a class of quasi-solutions having the distinctive feature of gaps in a countable number of points. It was possible numerically using the Runge–Kutta method of the fourth order to build these quasi-solutions and determine their rate of growth. Let us note that in the technical plan the main complexity consisted in obtaining quasi-solutions satisfying the nonlocal linear restrictions. Furthermore, we investigated the dependence of quasi-solutions and, in particular, sizes of gaps (jumps) of solutions on a number of parameters of the model characterizing a rule of control, technologies for transportation of cargo and intensity of giving of cargo on a node station.

Let k be a field of characteristic zero, let G be a connected reductive algebraic group over k and let g be its Lie algebra. Let k(G), respectively, k(g), be the field of k- rational functions on G, respectively, g. The conjugation action of G on itself induces the adjoint action of G on g. We investigate the question whether or not the field extensions k(G)/k(G)^G and k(g)/k(g)^G are purely transcendental. We show that the answer is the same for k(G)/k(G)^G and k(g)/k(g)^G, and reduce the problem to the case where G is simple. For simple groups we show that the answer is positive if G is split of type A_n or C_n, and negative for groups of other types, except possibly G_2. A key ingredient in the proof of the negative result is a recent formula for the unramified Brauer group of a homogeneous space with connected stabilizers. As a byproduct of our investigation we give an affirmative answer to a question of Grothendieck about the existence of a rational section of the categorical quotient morphism for the conjugating action of G on itself.

Let G be a connected semisimple algebraic group over an algebraically closed field k. In 1965 Steinberg proved that if G is simply connected, then in G there exists a closed irreducible cross-section of the set of closures of regular conjugacy classes. We prove that in arbitrary G such a cross-section exists if and only if the universal covering isogeny Ĝ → G is bijective; this answers Grothendieck's question cited in the epigraph. In particular, for char k = 0, the converse to Steinberg's theorem holds. The existence of a cross-section in G implies, at least for char k = 0, that the algebra k[G]G of class functions on G is generated by rk G elements. We describe, for arbitrary G, a minimal generating set of k[G]G and that of the representation ring of G and answer two Grothendieck's questions on constructing generating sets of k[G]G. We prove the existence of a rational (i.e., local) section of the quotient morphism for arbitrary G and the existence of a rational cross-section in G (for char k = 0, this has been proved earlier); this answers the other question cited in the epigraph. We also prove that the existence of a rational section is equivalent to the existence of a rational W-equivariant map T- - - >G/T where T is a maximal torus of G and W the Weyl group.