Асимметрия употребления местоимений что и кто и морфологическая одушевлённость
The paper focuses on one syntactic restriction on the use of the interrogative pronoun
čto ‘what’. Contrary to kto ‘who’, čto disfavours constructions where it is syntactically
parallel and co-referent to the anaphoric pronouns on ‘he’, ona ‘she’, and ono ‘it’. For instance,
in the construction kogo “ego” (lit. ‘who “he”’), which the Russian speakers use
to find out what the antecedent of the anaphoric ego is, the pronoun čto cannot be used if
its form differs from the form of the anaphoric pronoun. For example, the context — Ja
ego kupil. — Čto “ego” ‘- I bought it. — What “it”’ is impossible, because the interrogative
pronoun employs the “inanimate” inflection type, the accusative čto being identical
to the nominative, while the anaphoric pronoun follows the “animate” type, where the
accusative form ego is identical to the genitive one. I consider possible explanations of
this fact and conclude that neither a purely formal explanation in terms of form identity,
nor a semantic one, based on the referential properties of the pronouns, are satisfactory.
The most plausible explanation is rather that in some constructions, grammatical characteristics
of the two pronouns (including animacy and, to some extent, gender) must coincide,
and the morphological animacy is even more important here than the semantic one.
Key words: animacy, interrogative pronouns, anaphoric pronouns, inflection type.
The paper examines the notions 'animate' and 'inanimate' which are often used in Latin textbooks in order to explain prepositional or nonpreposotional use of the ablative case of the nouns in the function of 'Ablativus auctoris' or 'Ablativus instrumenti/causae/rei efficientis' with passive verbs. I conclude that the 'animacy' of nouns in Latin is less regularly expressed by grammatical means and less stable than in Russian and should be considered a semantic category rather than a formal grammatical category.
This dissertation analyzes the reflexivity patterns in Uralic languages from the point of view of a minimalist approach to binding. The languages under consideration are five Uralic languages spoken in the Russian Federation: Meadow Mari, Komi-Zyrian, Khanty, Besermyan Udmurt, and Erzya. The empirical data were compiled during fieldwork, and are used to test and assess current approaches to binding. The main focus of the dissertation is on a number of puzzles posed by these languages, namely the locally bound pronominals in Khanty, as well as the binding domains of what I call semi-reflexives and their ability to take split antecedents in Meadow Mari, Komi-Zyrian, Besermyan Udmurt, and Erzya. The analysis of reflexive strategies proposed in this dissertation is based on a modular approach to binding (see Reuland 2011). It disentangles the various factors playing a role in establishing interpretive dependencies, including properties of predicates and syntactic chains. The puzzling behavior of reflexive strategies under discussion is accounted for in terms of their morphosyntactic composition in tandem with general properties of grammatical computation. The present approach provides a unified basis for verbal and nominal reflexives. Overall, the study shows that cross-linguistic variation is not random. It demonstrates how descriptive fieldwork and theoretical research can be mutually beneficial and how their symbiosis deepens our understanding of the general principles underlying language, and the way these are rooted in our cognitive system.
A new electronic frequency dictionary shows the distribution of grammatical forms in the inflectional paradigm of Russian nouns, adjectives and verbs, i.e. the grammatical profile of individual lexemes and lexical groups. While the frequency hierarchy of grammatical categories (e.g. the frequency of part of speech classes or the average ratio of Nominative to Instrumental case forms) has long been the standard topic of research, the present project shifts the focus to the distribution of grammatical forms in particular lexical units. Of particular concern are words with certain biases in grammatical profile, e.g. verbs used mostly in Imperative, in past neutral or nouns used often in plural. The dictionary will be a source for many of the future research in the area of Russian grammar, paradigm structure, grammatical semantics, as well as variation of grammatical forms.
The resource is based on the data of the Russian National Corpus. The article addresses some general issues such as corpora use in compiling frequency resources and technology of corpus data processing. We suggest certain solutions related to the selection of data and the level of granularity of grammatical profile. Text creation time and language registers are discussed as parameters which may shape the grammatical profile fluctuations.
The paper focuses on the paths of grammaticalization of the verb of speech manaš (‘say’, ‘name’) in Eastern Mari. The converb of this verb (manən) is desemantisized, it loses the syntactic properties of the verb of speech and shifts to the category of subordinators. Successive grammaticalization steps of this marker can be observed in Modern Mari: in some contexts it functions as a quotation marker, while in others as a subordinator. We suggest two paths of grammaticalization of this form on the basis of the given analysis: the fi rst path involves the context of verbs of speech, mental and emotive complementtaking predicates, the second path involves the contexts of causation and potential situation (in complementation), purpose and causal adverbial clauses. The argumentation for this grammaticalization pattern is based on the constraints on subordinate predicate encoding (acceptability of non-fi nite clauses with manən), the choice of pronouns [we focus on the choice of the anaphoric vs. deictic strategy of encoding the textual («original» in [Aikhenvald 2008]) speaker and hearer] and the mood of the verb in the complement clause. We show that in Modern Mari the analyzed form can have the following functions: as a quotation marker, as a subordinator in complement and adverbial clauses, as a discourse marker of hesitation and autocorrection, and as a semantically empty subordinator that is used to express negation with the infi nitive.
The paper is focused on the study of reaction of italian literature critics on the publication of the Boris Pasternak's novel "Doctor Jivago". The analysys of the book ""Doctor Jivago", Pasternak, 1958, Italy" (published in Russian language in "Reka vremen", 2012, in Moscow) is given. The papers of italian writers, critics and historians of literature, who reacted immediately upon the publication of the novel (A. Moravia, I. Calvino, F.Fortini, C. Cassola, C. Salinari ecc.) are studied and analised.
In the article the patterns of the realization of emotional utterances in dialogic and monologic speech are described. The author pays special attention to the characteristic features of the speech of a speaker feeling psychic tension and to the compositional-pragmatic peculiarities of dialogic and monologic text.