Machine-to-Machine Communications over FiWi Enhanced LTE Networks: A Power-Saving Framework and End-to-End Performance
To cope with the unprecedented acceleration of machine-to-machine (M2M) services over cellular networks, this paper envisions a highly converged network architecture based on the integration of high-capacity and reliable Ethernet fiber-wireless (FiWi) access networks with flexible and cost-effective 4G long term evolution (LTE) technology to support M2M connectivity in an end-to-end fashion, i.e., from air interface to transport (backhaul) network. In such emerging architecture, energy efficiency must be addressed in a comprehensive way, in which both wireless front-end and optical backhaul segments are considered at the same time to maximize the battery life of battery-constrained M2M devices as well as reduce operational expenditures for network operators, while maintaining acceptable network performance. Toward this end, an end-to-end power-saving framework is introduced in this paper that devises a timeout driven discontinuous reception (DRX) mechanism for LTE-enabled M2M devices and a polling-based power-saving mechanism for optical network units (ONUs) to improve the overall energy efficiency. End-to-end performance in terms of energy saving and packet delay is analytically modeled based on a semi-Markov process for the front-end and an M/G/1 queue for the backhaul. The obtained results indicate that the device battery life is significantly prolonged by extending the DRX cycle, whereas the backhaul energy consumption is minimized by incorporating the ONU power-savingmodes into the dynamic bandwidth allocation process of the optical backhaul.