К истории славянского второго будущего: пути семантической эволюции
Abstract: The paper represents the first experience in the study of the semantic changes of the Slavic future perfect on a wide range of old and modern Slavic languages in comparison with typologically similar features from other European languages. The author argues that the Slavic future perfect is a polyfunctional and discourse-oriented gram. The main temporal and modal functions of the periphrasis in the Slavic languages are ‘anteriority in the future/ real condition’, ‘posteriority in the future’ and ‘presumption about an event in the past’. There are also some isolated cases, which show that the periphrasis can even enter the semantic area of irreality and serve as a functional synonym of the conditional mood. Contextual pragmatic inferences play an important role in the semantic development of the future perfect, as they serve as a source of their temporal and modal functions and define two main semantic paths of the Slavic future perfect. The first route presupposes the loss of the resultative component and reinterpretation of the future perfect as a non-resultative predictive future. West-, south-west and western dialects of East Slavic languages share this route: such as the old Czech, some dialects of Slovak, Slovenian, northwestern dialects of Serbo-Croatian and probably Polish and western dialects of Ukrainian. The second path is typical of the eastern part of the south Slavic languages and to some extent of the east Slavic languages (Russian). It leads to the development of the epistemic and evidential uses and to further reinterpretation of the auxiliary as a supposition marker and its expansion to other verbal structures (Bulgarian shte (da), Russian bude). The Russian language in the course of its history shares the features of both south and north Slavic languages, for it develops the epistemic particle bude, on the one hand, but later it loses completely the future perfect gram as well as its relics.