Транскраниальная магнитная стимуляция с электроэнцефалографией: методология, экспериментальные и клинические возможности
Despite extensive research on face recognition, only a few studies have examined the integration of perceptual features with semantic, biographical, and episodic information. In order to address this issue, we used repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) to target the left inferior frontal gyrus (IFG) and the left occipital face area (OFA) during a face recognition task. rTMS was delivered during the encoding of "context" faces (i.e., linked to an occupation, e.g., "lawyer") and "no-context" faces (i.e., linked to a nonword pattern, e.g., "xxxx"). Subjects were then asked to perform a recognition memory task. Accuracy at retrieval showed a mild decrease after left OFA stimulation, whereas rTMS over the left IFG drastically compromised memory performance selectively for no-context faces. On the other hand, absence of rTMS interference on context faces might be due either to the fact that pairing an occupation to a face makes the memory trace stronger, therefore less susceptible to rTMS interference, or to a different functional specificity of the left IFG subregions.
The right temporoparietal junction (rTPJ) is a polysensory cortical area that plays a key role in perception and awareness. Neuroimaging evidence shows activation of rTPJ in intersensory and sensorimotor conflict situations, but it remains unclear whether this activity reflects detection or resolution of such conflicts. To address this question, we manipulated the relationship between touch and vision using the so-called mirror-box illusion. Participants' hands lay on either side of a mirror, which occluded their left hand and reflected their right hand, but created the illusion that they were looking directly at their left hand. The experimenter simultaneously touched either the middle (D3) or the ring finger (D4) of each hand. Participants judged, which finger was touched on their occluded left hand. The visual stimulus corresponding to the touch on the right hand was therefore either congruent (same finger as touch) or incongruent (different finger from touch) with the task-relevant touch on the left hand. Single-pulse transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) was delivered to the rTPJ immediately after touch. Accuracy in localizing the left touch was worse for D4 than for D3, particularly when visual stimulation was incongruent. However, following TMS, accuracy improved selectively for D4 in incongruent trials, suggesting that the effects of the conflicting visual information were reduced. These findings suggest a role of rTPJ in detecting, rather than resolving, intersensory conflict.
The neural mechanisms underlying perceptual learning are still under investigation. Eureka effect is a form of rapid, long-lasting perceptual learning by which a degraded image, which appears meaningless when first seen, becomes recognizable after a single exposure to its undegraded version. We used online interference by focal 10-Hz repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) to evaluate whether the parietal cortex (PC) is involved in Eureka effect, as suggested by neuroimaging data. RTMS of the PC did not affect recognition of degraded pictures when displayed 2s after the presentation of their undegraded version (learning phase). However, rTMS delivered over either right or left intraparietal sulcus simultaneously to the undegraded image presentation, disrupted identification of the degraded version of the same pictures when displayed 30 min after the learning phase. In contrast, recognition of degraded images was unaffected by rTMS over the vertex or by sham rTMS, or when rTMS of either PC was delivered 2s after the presentation of the undegraded image. Findings strongly support the hypothesis that both PC at the level of the intraparietal sulcus play a pivotal role in the Eureka effect particularly in consolidation processes, and contribute to elucidate the neural network underlying rapid perceptual learning
The distractive effects on attentional task performance in different paradigms are analyzed in this paper. I demonstrate how distractors may negatively affect (interference effect), positively (redundancy effect) or neutrally (null effect). Distractor effects described in literature are classified in accordance with their hypothetical source. The general rule of the theory is also introduced. It contains the formal prediction of the particular distractor effect, based on entropy and redundancy measures from the mathematical theory of communication (Shannon, 1948). Single- vs dual-process frameworks are considered for hypothetical mechanisms which underpin the distractor effects. Distractor profiles (DPs) are also introduced for the formalization and simple visualization of experimental data concerning the distractor effects. Typical shapes of DPs and their interpretations are discussed with examples from three frequently cited experiments. Finally, the paper introduces hierarchical hypothesis that states the level-fashion modulating interrelations between distractor effects of different classes.
This article describes the expierence of studying factors influencing the social well-being of educational migrants as mesured by means of a psychological well-being scale (A. Perrudet-Badoux, G.A. Mendelsohn, J.Chiche, 1988) previously adapted for Russian by M.V. Sokolova. A statistical analysis of the scale's reliability is performed. Trends in dynamics of subjective well-being are indentified on the basis the correlations analysis between the condbtbions of adaptation and its success rate, and potential mechanisms for developing subjective well-being among student migrants living in student hostels are described. Particular attention is paid to commuting as a factor of adaptation.
In the internal medicine wide spectrum the gastroenterology is one of the chapters, less enlightened by the scientific evidence. It does not mean that the practice of the grasntroenterology may ot be improved by the systematic use of the approaches of the evidence based medicine
This volume presents new results in the study and optimization of information transmission models in telecommunication networks using different approaches, mainly based on theiries of queueing systems and queueing networks .
The paper provides a number of proposed draft operational guidelines for technology measurement and includes a number of tentative technology definitions to be used for statistical purposes, principles for identification and classification of potentially growing technology areas, suggestions on the survey strategies and indicators. These are the key components of an internationally harmonized framework for collecting and interpreting technology data that would need to be further developed through a broader consultation process. A summary of definitions of technology already available in OECD manuals and the stocktaking results are provided in the Annex section.