Interaction of the Earth's Magnetotail with Dusty Plasma near the Lunar Surface: Wave Processes and Turbulent Magnetic Reconnection
Wave processes occurring under the interaction of the Earth's magnetosphere with dusty plasma near the lunar surface are studied. Ion-acoustic waves are shown to be excited in some regions of the magnetosphere due to the development of a linear hydrodynamic instability. This results in the excitation of ion-acoustic turbulence in these regions. Dust-acoustic waves are demonstrated to be generated due to the development of linear kinetic instability in the entire region of magnetotail interaction with dusty plasma near the Moon. Correspondingly, dust-acoustic turbulence can be excited in the entire region of the interaction of the Earth's magnetosphere with dusty plasma near the lunar surface. We discuss magnetic reconnection processes, which are related to the development of plasma turbulence at the Moon.
A theory is developed which describes the processes of dust particle charging in the situation when dust particles are subjected to the action of a beam of electrons. It is shown that in this situation it is necessary to consider the electron field emission in addition to the influence of the electron beam on the dust particle. We calculate the current of the electron field emission modified by the Schottky effect and find the steady-state dust particle charge. We show that in the situation considered the electrostatic energy of the dust particle is much smaller than the electron energy in the beam.
This paper aims to resolve the problem of formation of young objects observed in the RCW 82 H II region. In the framework of a classical trigger model the estimated time of fragmentation is larger than the estimated age of the H II region. Thus the young objects could not have formed during the dynamical evolution of the H II region. We propose a new model that helps resolve this problem. This model suggests that the H II region RCW 82 is embedded in a cloud of limited size that is denser than the surrounding interstellar medium. According to this model, when the ionization-shock front leaves the cloud it causes the formation of an accelerating dense gas shell. In the accelerated shell, the effects of the Rayleigh-Taylor (R-T) instability dominate and the characteristic time of the growth of perturbations with the observed magnitude of about 3 pc is 0.14 Myr, which is less than the estimated age of the H II region. The total time t ∑, which is the sum of the expansion time of the H II region to the edge of the cloud, the time of the R-T instability growth, and the free fall time, is estimated as 0.44 < t ∑ < 0.78 Myr. We conclude that the young objects in the H II region RCW 82 could be formed as a result of the R-T instability with subsequent fragmentation into large-scale condensations.
Special features of the ion-acoustic oscillation instability in the transition region of a quiet solar atmosphere are examined. A model of electron distribution function, which corresponds to the heat flux, under condition of absence of a particular beam, is analyzed. It is shown that the heat flux-related anisotropy of the distribution function is sufficient for the achievement of the threshold of ion-acoustic instability in the transition region. A characteristic value of the electric field in ion-acoustic turbulence is estimated.
The dynamics of a two-component Davydov-Scott (DS) soliton with a small mismatch of the initial location or velocity of the high-frequency (HF) component was investigated within the framework of the Zakharov-type system of two coupled equations for the HF and low-frequency (LF) fields. In this system, the HF field is described by the linear Schrödinger equation with the potential generated by the LF component varying in time and space. The LF component in this system is described by the Korteweg-de Vries equation with a term of quadratic influence of the HF field on the LF field. The frequency of the DS soliton`s component oscillation was found analytically using the balance equation. The perturbed DS soliton was shown to be stable. The analytical results were confirmed by numerical simulations.
Radiation conditions are described for various space regions, radiation-induced effects in spacecraft materials and equipment components are considered and information on theoretical, computational, and experimental methods for studying radiation effects are presented. The peculiarities of radiation effects on nanostructures and some problems related to modeling and radiation testing of such structures are considered.
This volume presents new results in the study and optimization of information transmission models in telecommunication networks using different approaches, mainly based on theiries of queueing systems and queueing networks .
The paper provides a number of proposed draft operational guidelines for technology measurement and includes a number of tentative technology definitions to be used for statistical purposes, principles for identification and classification of potentially growing technology areas, suggestions on the survey strategies and indicators. These are the key components of an internationally harmonized framework for collecting and interpreting technology data that would need to be further developed through a broader consultation process. A summary of definitions of technology already available in OECD manuals and the stocktaking results are provided in the Annex section.