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Article

Российский протекторат над Бухарой в оценках бухарской элиты конца XIX - начала XX в.

Goal. Article devoted to analysis of information and evaluations of the members of the Bukharan elite of the 1870s — 1910s on legal transformations made by Russian authorities in the Bukharan Emirate which since 1868 was under the protectorate of the Russian Empire. Author used works of contemporaries — Bukharan officials who were loyal to emir’s government (Sadr-i Ziya, Salimbek) or criticized them (A. Donish, A. Sami) as well as oppositionists who demanded reforms (A. Fitrat, S. Ayni). Methods. Using methods of historical legal, formal legal and comparative legal analysis the author characterizes attitude of contemporaries on the interference of the Russian authorities in the internal affairs of Bukhara in general and their evaluation of transformations made by Russians in different fields of legal relations — taxation, trade, criminal and judicial and even the public health. Results. Author finds that social status and political vies of members of the Bukharan elite (authors of analyzed works) substantially affected their evaluation of transformations made in the Bukharan Emirate with initiative of Russian authorities. Conservative officials criticized these transformations and opposed any reforms in Bukhara. Reformers (jadids or Young Bukharans) evaluated many of transformations positively. At that it makes sense to note the contradictory position of some authors: they welcome changes carried out by Russian authorities but at the same were afraid that Emirate would lose completely its independence to Russia and its development would continued in the “Russian” (i.e. European) way without considering national and religious specific features, traditions of Central Asian state and law. Nevertheless, in fact, all authors demonstrated their adaptation for new political and legal realities, realized that influence of Russia became “fait accompli” and sometimes even gave information on getting out profit (by themselves or their familiars) in the changed circumstances in different fields of legal relations. Conclusions. The information of Bukharan contemporaries on the legal transformations in Bukhara under the Russian protectorate is a valuable addition to the legal monuments and notes of Russian and western contemporaries related to this subject.