Structure of the Current Sheets in the Near-Mars Magnetotail Maven Observations
During the last 15 years, the Current Sheets (CSs) have been intensively studied in the tail of the terrestrial magnetosphere, where protons are the dominated ion component. On the contrary, in the Martian magnetotail heavy ions (O+ and ) usually dominate while the abundance of protons can be negligible. Hence it is interesting to study the spatial structure and plasma characteristics of such “oxygen” CSs. MAVEN spacecraft (s/c) currently operating on the Martian orbit with a unique set of scientific instruments allows observation of the magnetic field and three-dimensional distribution functions of various ion components and electrons with a high time resolution. In this paper, we analyse nine intervals of the CSs observed by MAVEN in the near-Mars tail at the distances from the planet ~1.5–1RM, where RM is the radius of Mars. We analyse the spatial structure of the CSs and estimate their thickness for different magnetic configurations and relative abundance of the heavy and light ions in the sheets. It is shown that, similarly to the CSs in the Earth’s magnetotail, the thickness and complexity of the spatial structure of the Maritan CSs (i.e. the presence of embedded and / or peripheral current structures) depend on the magnetic configuration of the sheets, which, in turn, affects the fraction of the quasi-adiabatic particles in the CSs
Numerous studies of the current sheets (CS) in the Earth’s magnetotail showed that quasi-adiabatic ion dynamics plays an important role in the formation of complicated multilayered current structures. In order to check whether the similar mechanisms operate in the Martian magnetotail, we analyzed 80 CS crossings using MAVEN measurements on the nightside of Mars at radial distances ~1.0–2.8RM. We found that CS structures experience similar dependence on the value of the normal component of the magnetic field at the neutral plane (BN) and on the ratio of the ion drift velocity outside the CS to the thermal velocity (VT/VD) as it was observed for the CSs in the Earth’s magnetotail. For the small values of BN, a thin and intense CS embedded in a thicker one is observed. The half-thickness L of this layer is ~30–100 km ≤ ρH+ (ρH+ is a gyroradius of thermal protons outside the CS). With the increase of BN, the L also increases up to several hundred kilometers (~ρO+, ρO2+), the current density decreases, and the embedding feature disappears. Our statistical analysis showed a good agreement between L values observed by MAVEN and the CS scaling obtained from the quasi-adiabatic model, if the plasma characteristics in Martian CSs are used as input parameters. Thus, we may conclude that in spite of the differences in magnetic topology, ion composition, and plasma thermal characteristics observed in the Earth’s and Martian magnetotails, similar quasi-adiabatic mechanisms contribute to the formation of the CSs in the magnetotails of both planets
Within the axisymmetric MHD model of the solar wind, the magnetic field of the Sun has been analyzed in two phases of the solar cycle: the minimum activity, when the dipole magnetic field dominates and the maximum activity, when the quadrupole field predominates. It has been shown that during the period of maximum solar activity, the heliospheric current sheet acquires a conical shape and shifts to high latitudes up to 30° above the ecliptic plane. In the opposite hemisphere, at the same latitudes, a second current sheet of conical shape with an azimuth current of the opposite direction is established. It has been shown that the profiles of the main characteristics of the solar wind become steeper with distance from the Sun, and their amplitudes decrease, in this case, for the quadrupole field, the dependences of the main characteristics of the solar wind are more complex. A comparison of the results of the model with averaged characteristics of the solar wind shows a good match between the observed values and model parameters.
Within the self-consistent hybrid model based on the quasi-adiabatic approximation of the proton dynamics, a fine structure of strong current sheets (SCSs) in the solar wind has been investigated, including the heliospheric current sheet. The motion of electrons is fast and considered in the Boltzmann approximation. The simulation results have been shown that the SCS profiles have a multiscale enclosed structure with a narrow central current sheet that is enclosed in a wider sheet, similar to the heliospheric current sheet surrounded by the plasma sheet. The features of the SCS structure are determined by the relative contributions of the current of demagnetized protons in serpentine orbits and drift currents of electrons. The model predicts and describes the properties of SCSs observed by spacecraft. It has been shown that the multiscale structure of current sheets is an inherent intrinsic property of current sheets in the solar wind.
The dynamics of a two-component Davydov-Scott (DS) soliton with a small mismatch of the initial location or velocity of the high-frequency (HF) component was investigated within the framework of the Zakharov-type system of two coupled equations for the HF and low-frequency (LF) fields. In this system, the HF field is described by the linear Schrödinger equation with the potential generated by the LF component varying in time and space. The LF component in this system is described by the Korteweg-de Vries equation with a term of quadratic influence of the HF field on the LF field. The frequency of the DS soliton`s component oscillation was found analytically using the balance equation. The perturbed DS soliton was shown to be stable. The analytical results were confirmed by numerical simulations.
Radiation conditions are described for various space regions, radiation-induced effects in spacecraft materials and equipment components are considered and information on theoretical, computational, and experimental methods for studying radiation effects are presented. The peculiarities of radiation effects on nanostructures and some problems related to modeling and radiation testing of such structures are considered.
This volume presents new results in the study and optimization of information transmission models in telecommunication networks using different approaches, mainly based on theiries of queueing systems and queueing networks .
The paper provides a number of proposed draft operational guidelines for technology measurement and includes a number of tentative technology definitions to be used for statistical purposes, principles for identification and classification of potentially growing technology areas, suggestions on the survey strategies and indicators. These are the key components of an internationally harmonized framework for collecting and interpreting technology data that would need to be further developed through a broader consultation process. A summary of definitions of technology already available in OECD manuals and the stocktaking results are provided in the Annex section.