The Young and Clueless? Wheare, Vossius, and Keckermann on the Study of History
In their debate on whether or not the young should be allowed to study history, Degory Wheare and Gerhardus Vossius quote Bartholomäus Keckermann and state that he wants to exclude the young from studying history, Wheare arguing for Keckermann’s purported position, Vossius opposing it. Their disagreement is part of a larger controversy on the relevance of history for moral instruction in general, contemplating the question whether or not history is best understood as ‘philosophy teaching by example.’ But the interpretation of Keckermann’s position presupposed by both Wheare and Vossius is wrong. Keckermann’s Ramist predecessors argued against a central presupposition of Wheare’s views, i.e., the exclusion of the young from studying moral philosophy. Keckermann’s own position in this regard is not fully clear. But a closer analysis of his distinction between methods for writing and for reading history shows that Keckermann did want the young to study history. If Keckermann had believed that such exclusion were necessary, it could only have been related to reading historical texts, not to writing them: writing texts about historical figures or events does not require moral precepts, but only the application of certain logical tools. But a view that implies that writing a historical text should be possible for students, whereas reading such a text would go beyond their capabilities, is absurd. Hence, we can assume that Keckermann expected the young to study both history and moral philosophy.
The article serves as an overview and discussion of the relationship between altruistic and egoistic individual patterns of perception and behavior. The vector of the analysis is set by the discrepancy between social scientiﬁ c and everyday discourses of care. Care is analyzed in the framework of the concept of moral foundations based on the results of anthropological research. Caring is viewed also as a tool of political and ideological pressure on the macro level and in the ﬁ eld of organizational relations. From the standpoint of neurobiology and psychology the potential for integration of care of the Self and of the Other is oﬀ ered in the theory of identity. Using of Moral motives' theory as a framework for understanding of moral identity allows interpreting of the care of the Self as a study of the Self and going beyond the Self. Category of the care acquires transcendental nature — it is not the care about the Self integrity and individual wellbeing, it is a truly human way of being.
The paper addresses the controversial question to which extent Augustine's views on dialectic have changed during his intellectual development. It argues that there is a high probability that Augustine changed his views in response to apparent misuse of dialectical tools by defenders of the Arian heresy – a misuse explicitly criticised by Ambrose of Milan whose influence on Augustine should not be underestimated. In De Doctrina Christiana Augustine abandons his earlier view that dialectic is a tool for gaining new knowledge. But it can nevertheless have a valid role in Christian education and hermeneutics, because it allows to test the formal validity of inferences.
Jan Lukasiewicz (1878-1956) was one of the most important members of the Lwow-Warsaw school of logic. The thirteen translated articles in this volume demonstrate the protean form of Lukasiewiczs work, from his texts on Aristotle and the principle of non-contradiction and syllogistics to modal logic, intuitionism, and multivalent logics. The articles show in particular his preoccupations with logical precision and the problem of human liberty.
The contribution analyses Wolff's definition of philosophy in his German Logic in the context of natural philosophy. It defends the thesis that for Wolff philosophy is the only arbiter in conflicts between natural and supernatural truths. Theologians have no standing to object to philosophical argument.
Future development and methodological contradictions in moral psychology are considered from the perspectives of social psychology. Determinants and evolution of notions of the subject of moral psychology are examined; the potential of cognitive approach to social-psychological issues in moral psychology is analyzed.
The article devoted to the theory and practice of studying moral decisions, at the individual level and at the group level. Describing the data of empirical, social-psychological research on the impact of group moral decisions on individual moral decisions. Empirically substantiated the thesis that the decisions taken at the level of the group correspond to a lower level of moral consciousness than the decisions taken individually. Detailing the process of group discussion and decision-making process.
“Let's be Logical” is a double invitation. Although logic often refers to a disposition of mind that we all share, this disposition might be confused once its theoretical sources are questioned. The present volume offers thirteen articles that address various aspects of the discipline of logic and its methods, notably formalism, the theory of opposition, mathematical truth, and history of logic. This volume has been prepared with the pedagogical concern of making it accessible to a wide audience of logic and philosophy readers.
The paper examines the interpretation of action in Bartholomaeus Keckermann's applied logic. It defends the thesis that Keckermann makes important and innovative distinctions: the description of a particular action does not focus on its moral evaluation, but on its circumstances, antecedents, and consequences. The reading of such a text containing descriptions, narrations, or interpretations of actions, however, must take the moral dimension of the actions described into account. Keckermann's distinction may have important implications for Keckermann’s understanding of history and the pre-history of hermeneutics in general.
The article considers the Views of L. N. Tolstoy not only as a representative, but also as a accomplisher of the Enlightenment. A comparison of his philosophy with the ideas of Spinoza and Diderot made it possible to clarify some aspects of the transition to the unique Tolstoy’s religious and philosophical doctrine. The comparison of General and specific features of the three philosophers was subjected to a special analysis. Special attention is paid to the way of thinking, the relation to science and the specifics of the worldview by Tolstoy and Diderot. An important aspect is researched the contradiction between the way of thinking and the way of life of the three philosophers.
Tolstoy's transition from rational perception of life to its religious and existential bases is shown. Tolstoy gradually moves away from the idea of a natural man to the idea of a man, who living the commandments of Christ. Starting from the educational worldview, Tolstoy ended by creation of religious and philosophical doctrine, which were relevant for the 20th century.
This important new book offers the first full-length interpretation of the thought of Martin Heidegger with respect to irony. In a radical reading of Heidegger's major works (from Being and Time through the ‘Rector's Address' and the ‘Letter on Humanism' to ‘The Origin of the Work of Art' and the Spiegel interview), Andrew Haas does not claim that Heidegger is simply being ironic. Rather he argues that Heidegger's writings make such an interpretation possible - perhaps even necessary.
Heidegger begins Being and Time with a quote from Plato, a thinker famous for his insistence upon Socratic irony. The Irony of Heidegger takes seriously the apparently curious decision to introduce the threat of irony even as philosophy begins in earnest to raise the question of the meaning of being. Through a detailed and thorough reading of Heidegger's major texts and the fundamental questions they raise, Haas reveals that one of the most important philosophers of the 20th century can be read with as much irony as earnestness. The Irony of Heidegger attempts to show that the essence of this irony lies in uncertainty, and that the entire project of onto-heno-chrono-phenomenology, therefore needs to be called into question.
The article is concerned with the notions of technology in essays of Ernst and Friedrich Georg Jünger. The special problem of the connection between technology and freedom is discussed in the broader context of the criticism of culture and technocracy discussion in the German intellectual history of the first half of the 20th century.