Влияние эффекта простого измерения на приверженность лечению пациентов с хроническими заболеваниями
50% patients with chronic disease shows unintentional and intentional medication non-adherence. Medication non-adherence causes 4 to 10% of preventable healthcare losses. SMS reminders are associated with significant improvement in adherence rates. The current paper tests whether the question-behavior effect (QBE) could improve SMS reminders effectiveness. Preliminary RCT (N=40) shows positive, but not significant effect of QBE/SMS combination on medication adherence rates (ASD=0.249 (95% C. I. -0.061 – 0.560)), which corresponds to the predicted effect size (ASD=0.166 (95% C. I. 0.044 – 0.276)). Additional research is required for confirmation of QBE/SMS combination effectiveness.
We study the regularity and topological structure of a compact connected set $S$ minimizing the “compliance" functional with a length penalization. The compliance here is the work of the force applied to a membrane which is attached along the set $S$. This shape optimization problem, which can be interpreted as that of finding the best location for attaching a membrane subject to a given external force, can be seen as an elliptic PDE version of the minimal average distance problem. We prove that minimizers in the given region consist of a finite number of smooth curves which meet only at triple points with angles of 120 degrees, contain no loops, and possibly touch the boundary of the region only tangentially. The proof uses, among other ingredients, some tools from the theory of free discontinuity problems (monotonicity formula, flatness improving estimates, blow-up limits), but adapted to the specific problem of min-max type studied here, which constitutes a significant difference with the classical setting and may be useful also for similar other problems.
Health Psychology as a discipline is established as an independent field of psychological knowledge, realizing the biopsychosocial approach to health and illness. However there are questions remaining open: how practically this approach is applied in health psychology and what are the borders between health psychology and close disciplines (psychosomatics, body functions regulation psychology, behavioral medicine, positive psychology). The purpose of this paper is to examine the possibilities and limitations in the application of the biopsychosocial approach to health psychology, as well as to compare different alternative sciences based on this approach. There is heterogeneity of biopsychosocial approach revealed, that is based on three different functions this approach has in the regulation of research: the role of ethical and social guidelines, the role of methodological principle, the role of the explanatory model for health and illness. The specificity of the subject area of health psychology implies taking into account issues like wide / narrow definition of the subject in various disciplines; what kind of discipline serves as an integrative; as well as understanding of social situation of science development (including the development of psychosomatic medicine in Russia), its goals and objectives.
The distractive effects on attentional task performance in different paradigms are analyzed in this paper. I demonstrate how distractors may negatively affect (interference effect), positively (redundancy effect) or neutrally (null effect). Distractor effects described in literature are classified in accordance with their hypothetical source. The general rule of the theory is also introduced. It contains the formal prediction of the particular distractor effect, based on entropy and redundancy measures from the mathematical theory of communication (Shannon, 1948). Single- vs dual-process frameworks are considered for hypothetical mechanisms which underpin the distractor effects. Distractor profiles (DPs) are also introduced for the formalization and simple visualization of experimental data concerning the distractor effects. Typical shapes of DPs and their interpretations are discussed with examples from three frequently cited experiments. Finally, the paper introduces hierarchical hypothesis that states the level-fashion modulating interrelations between distractor effects of different classes.
The general aim of this thesis is to explore the gendered and classed nature of social work and social welfare in Russia to show how social policy can be a part of and reinforce marginalisation. The overall research question is in what ways class and gender are constructed in Russian social work practice and welfare rhetoric through Soviet legacies and contemporary challenges? In addition, which actors contribute to the constitution of social work values and how this value system affects the agency of the clients? This study focuses on contradictory ideologies that are shaped in discursive formations of social policy, social work training and practice. It is a qualitative study, containing fi ve papers looking at this issue from three different perspectives: policy and institutions, culture and discourse, actors and identity. The data collection was arranged as a purposive–iterative process. The empirical material consists of qualitative interviews with social work practitioners, administrators and clients, participant observations in social services and analysis of documents of various kinds.
This article describes the expierence of studying factors influencing the social well-being of educational migrants as mesured by means of a psychological well-being scale (A. Perrudet-Badoux, G.A. Mendelsohn, J.Chiche, 1988) previously adapted for Russian by M.V. Sokolova. A statistical analysis of the scale's reliability is performed. Trends in dynamics of subjective well-being are indentified on the basis the correlations analysis between the condbtbions of adaptation and its success rate, and potential mechanisms for developing subjective well-being among student migrants living in student hostels are described. Particular attention is paid to commuting as a factor of adaptation.
In the internal medicine wide spectrum the gastroenterology is one of the chapters, less enlightened by the scientific evidence. It does not mean that the practice of the grasntroenterology may ot be improved by the systematic use of the approaches of the evidence based medicine