Формирование положительной самооценки студентов ВУЗа через респондентное обусловливание
The purpose of this work was to elucidate the possibility of modifying implicit self-esteem. Self-esteem Conditioning Task was used as a self-esteem conditioning modifier, an implicit association test (IAT) was used to evaluate implicit self-esteem, and Rosenberg’s self-esteem questionnaire and a self-assessment questionnaire were used to assess the self-assessment. In the course of this study, a significant difference was found between the levels of implicit self-esteem in the experimental and control groups, which confirms our hypothesis about the possibility of modifying implicit self-esteem by means of respondent conditioning. These data support the theories according to which, implicit self-esteem is not a stable constructor that can be formed only once per lifetime and has since remained unchanged. Modifying an implicit self-assessment is indeed a difficult task, but there are methods that can do this, including the Self-Esteem Condition Task.
The paper presents the results of the phenomenological study of the dependence in close interpersonal relationship between a man and a woman. Phenomenological analysis of interviews of respondents experiencing their close interpersonal relationships as dependent, conducted by the technique of A. Giorgi, allowed to propose a structural model of this phenomenon, highlighting the invariant and variable components of dependence in a relationship. A special attention to the vicious circle “closeness – estrangement” specific to dependent relationships is given in the paper. It is shown that differentiation of interpersonal dependence is based on the type of the deficiency that is characterized by the specific need of compensation by the partner from whom one depends. This deficiency corresponds to the content of the fundamental existential motivations, allocated by A. Laengle: lack in support, lack of experience of life, lack in self-acceptance and self-esteem. Frustration of fundamental existential motivation for the meaning was present in all cases of dependence.
This article concerns with the problem of parent-child relationship and its consequences for the emotional and personal well-being of a preschooler. Modern family undergo a crisis, characterized by a decrease of adult responsibility for the full personal development of a child. However, it is the psychological climate and especially the peculiarities of family relationships play in this process a decisive role. Preschool is an important period in the formation of the child's personality, determining its future development prospects. We made research with its primary goal as the interrelation of parental functional roles, as well as the interrelation of the types of parental relationship with self-esteem and anxiety of an older preschooler. According to the results we can say that the parental relationship and functional parental roles as the elements of parent-child relationship structure have a significant impact on the emotional and personal well-being of a preschooler. © 2013 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd. Selection and/or peer-review under responsibility of Russian Psychological Society.
The problem of conspicuous consumption in Russia is very important, so the study of psychological factors of conspicuous consumption is very relevant. The article touches upon the issue of Self-concept features of conspicuous consumers. Sample consists of 195 participants, 54% are women. The special scale to study the tendency to conspicuous consumption was adopted in this research. The following conclusions are drawn: conspicuous consumers have higher Self-concept clarity, domination of individual characteristics in the self-concept content, higher level of self-esteem.
This article discusses the problems of professional formation. The subject of this research is the self-esteem of the level of professionalism. Based on empirical data, the authors examine the self-esteem of professionals depending on the periods of their lives, associating with the stages of professional career. The theoretical basis leans on the ontogenetic approach, the foundation for periodization in which are the stages regarding the chronological age of a worker. Significant advantage of such periodization can be considered not only the possibility of studying the universal trends in professional development that do not depend on the type of activity and profession, but also the clearly specified stages of professional cycle viewed as a component of the human life cycle. The study is based on both, theoretical developments based on the study of the Russian and foreign scientific literature and empirical data obtained during statistical calculations based on RLMS-HSE (2014). The article presents data that testify to the fact that the subjective assessment of the level of professionalism increases at certain age periods, which may be due to the character of work, level of involvement into it, as well as personal qualities and abilities for self-realization in the selected discipline; all of these aspects allow considering this process in the context of ontogenetic approach.
The distractive effects on attentional task performance in different paradigms are analyzed in this paper. I demonstrate how distractors may negatively affect (interference effect), positively (redundancy effect) or neutrally (null effect). Distractor effects described in literature are classified in accordance with their hypothetical source. The general rule of the theory is also introduced. It contains the formal prediction of the particular distractor effect, based on entropy and redundancy measures from the mathematical theory of communication (Shannon, 1948). Single- vs dual-process frameworks are considered for hypothetical mechanisms which underpin the distractor effects. Distractor profiles (DPs) are also introduced for the formalization and simple visualization of experimental data concerning the distractor effects. Typical shapes of DPs and their interpretations are discussed with examples from three frequently cited experiments. Finally, the paper introduces hierarchical hypothesis that states the level-fashion modulating interrelations between distractor effects of different classes.
This article describes the expierence of studying factors influencing the social well-being of educational migrants as mesured by means of a psychological well-being scale (A. Perrudet-Badoux, G.A. Mendelsohn, J.Chiche, 1988) previously adapted for Russian by M.V. Sokolova. A statistical analysis of the scale's reliability is performed. Trends in dynamics of subjective well-being are indentified on the basis the correlations analysis between the condbtbions of adaptation and its success rate, and potential mechanisms for developing subjective well-being among student migrants living in student hostels are described. Particular attention is paid to commuting as a factor of adaptation.