Quantifying contextual effects in second language processing of phonolexically ambiguous and unambiguous words
Second language (L2) speakers often experience difficulty discriminating speech sounds of the nonnative language, which can result in phonolexical ambiguity. We report two experiments that examine how L2 Russian speakers may utilize contextual constraints for phonolexical ambiguity resolution during speech comprehension. L2 ambiguous words constitute minimal pairs with palatalized and unpalatalized consonants in the Russian language, where the phonological feature of palatalization marks semantic, morphological, or syntactic distinctions between words. L2 performance is compared to that of a control group of Russian native speakers. The results demonstrate that L2 listeners rely on contextual information for meaning disambiguation during sentence comprehension, but that the relative reliance on different types of context is task specific.
In this paper we describe an open learner corpus of Russian. The Russian Learner Corpus (RLC) is the first corpus with clear distinction between foreign language learners and heritage speakers. We discuss the structure of the corpus, its development and the annotation principles. This paper describes the platform of the RLC which combines online tools for text uploading, processing, error annotation and corpus search.
Although foreign language instruction has seen a big surge in the integration of technology-enhanced forms of delivery of knowledge and interaction, research focusing on the value of computer-mediated communication (CMC) in the language classroom has not been extensive and has not received wide coverage. This article examines and outlines general findings regarding the educational capacity, benefits and limitations of three major CMC tools (text-based chats, discussion boards and wikis) for enhancing foreign and second language acquisition processes. Some insights are offered into the importance of specific CMC tools for supporting the collaborative nature of learning and learner autonomy, fostering students’ reflection and critical thinking skills and affording higher motivational gains and engagement in the language learning process.
The article analyzes various types of psychological barriers the learners of foreign languages go through in second language acquisition (SLA), different views of both Russian and foreign psychologists on the issue and defines some strategy to overcome these barriers. Second language learning is impacted on both by objective factors: age, gender, language learning aptitude, social factors, etc, and subjective, affective factors or filters, such as motivation, personal attitude to the subject of study and learning process, anxiety, self-confidence and self-esteem. The theory of effective filters, or individual barriers to SLA first introduced by H. Dulay and M. Burt and then advanced by S. Krashen plays an important role for teachers both in finding the proper methodology to facilitate learning, considering each learner’s own affective filters, choosing the best way to conduct their teaching and further insight into the theory of psychological barriers impeding foreign language learning as a whole. Effective SLA and its further professional use depend on the students’ psychological state, readiness to reshape the former opinion of their own ability to grasp and advance in speaking the foreign language both inside and outside the classroom as well as the teacher’s talent to apply the explicit instruction and input, build trustworthy relationship with the students and cultivate a friendly classroom atmosphere.
In order to comprehend speech, listeners have to combine low-level phonetic information about the incoming auditory signal with higher-order contextual information to make a lexical selection. This requires stable phonological categories and unambiguous representations of words in the mental lexicon. Unlike native speakers, second language (L2) speakers, who perceive nonnative sounds through the prism of their first language (L1), operate with fuzzy phonological categories, which lead to phonologically ambiguous lexical representations (e.g., the wordsrock and lock can be confused if phonological representations for /r/ and /l/ are not sufficiently robust). The present study uses the AX discrimination task to establish the degree of sensitivity of L2 listeners to the Russian hard/soft phonological contrast. The same phonological contrasts are then used in the stimuli for the second task—listening comprehension task with word identification—to mark semantic, syntactic, and morphological distinctions in words. The goal of the study is to examine the contributions and relative efficiency of different contextual constraints (semantic, syntactic, and morphological) to the resolution of phonolexical ambiguity in L2 auditory sentence processing. The results suggest that when L2 phonological contrasts present a discriminability problem and create phonolexical ambiguity, L2 listeners rely on morphological constraints for disambiguation of word forms and syntactic constraints for disambiguation of words belonging to different parts of speech to a greater extent than on semantic constraints for disambiguation of nouns in the same form.
The Routledge Handbook of Second Language Research in Classroom Learning is a comprehensive psycholinguistic approach to the issue of instructed language learning that is uniquely theoretical, methodological, empirical, pedagogical, and curricular. Bringing together empirical studies with theoretical underpinnings, this handbook focuses on conceptual replications/extensions of, and new research on, classroom learning or Instructed SLA (ISLA). In chapters from leading experts, the Handbook reports on the tenets of several models that have postulated the roles of cognitive processes in the L2 learning process and also covers two major methodological data-elicitation procedures to be employed in addressing learner cognitive processes (think-aloud protocols and eye-tracking). With a dedicated interest in the role of this research in pedagogical ramifications, this handbook strives for deeper understanding of how L2 learners process L2 data in instructional settings.
The paper is focused on the study of reaction of italian literature critics on the publication of the Boris Pasternak's novel "Doctor Jivago". The analysys of the book ""Doctor Jivago", Pasternak, 1958, Italy" (published in Russian language in "Reka vremen", 2012, in Moscow) is given. The papers of italian writers, critics and historians of literature, who reacted immediately upon the publication of the novel (A. Moravia, I. Calvino, F.Fortini, C. Cassola, C. Salinari ecc.) are studied and analised.
In the article the patterns of the realization of emotional utterances in dialogic and monologic speech are described. The author pays special attention to the characteristic features of the speech of a speaker feeling psychic tension and to the compositional-pragmatic peculiarities of dialogic and monologic text.