Эволюция подходов крупнейших производителей потребительской электроники к формированию глобальных цепей поставок
Global consumer electronics market experienced considerable changes regarding the list of top-producers and configuration of their global supply chains over the past few decades. The main goal of the research is to analyze the evolution and identify up to date approaches to establishing global supply chains in consumer electronics industry. The research explores the supply chain models implemented by companies from different countries of origin: industrialized, newly industrialized and emerging economies. Companies of industrialized countries concentrated supply chain stages with the highest added value under own control transferring standardized operations to the emerging countries using ways of outsourcing and offshoring. Aggressive expansion of East-Asian producers did not allow some of them to maintain leadership. The model of South Korean companies consisted, on the one hand, in transferring own research centers to the industrialized countries, which allowed companies to enhance their technological edge, and on the other hand, in shifting standardized processes to countries with cheaper production. Chinese manufacturers chose the model of global supply chains establishing by means of mergers, acquisitions and entering into international strategic alliances. Nowadays, the leading consumer electronics producers switch to implementation of latest approaches to supply chain formation – reshoring, backshoring and nearshoring. It is recommended that companies pay close attention to the analysis of a possibility of full or partial onshoring strategy implementation, expediency of which is related to the formation of new world centers of consumer electronics consumption. The research results can form the basis for the development of supply chain management strategic decisions for the market players of the industry and its related market sectors as well as create a basis for elaborating the directions of state policies of concernedcountries in order to ensure their most effective participation in global value chains.