Кросс-культурные особенности копинг-стратегий российских и французских студентов в контексте психологического благополучия
The goal of the empirical study described in the article was to identify the cross-cultural characteristics of coping strategies and psychological well-being undertaken on a sample of the Russian (n = 70) and the French (n = 70) students aged 18 to 25 years old using the following psychodiagnostic tools: “Scale of psychological well-being” (by C. Riff, adapted by N. N. Lepeshinsky), “Ways of Coping Questionnaire” (WCQ, adapted by T. L. Kryukova and E. V. Kuftyak). Presumably, in different cultures, the preferences of coping strategies are related to the level of psychological well-being to varying degrees, probably depending on the general level of stress in society and the presence of a conscious experience of successful management of the environment. It was empirically established that the French students adopt the strategies of confrontation and distancing significantly more often than the Russians, and the Russian students adopt the strategy of taking over the responsibility much more often than the French students. The French students significantly exceed the Russian students in their satisfaction with interactions with other people, in the degree of self-acceptance, in the ability to manage their own environment, and to set conscious goals in life. The Russian students outperform the French students in terms of satisfaction with personal development. The effectiveness of coping strategies in regards of their relationship with psychological well-being varies in different cultures. Therefore, the strategy of planning the solution of the problem is the most effective strategy for the French students, and the reassessment of the situation is the most effective strategy for the Russian students.
Coping with problems depends on a person’s causal attribution of the problems. Coping strategies and attitudes are different if the person thinks that the problem to be coped with is: (a) caused by reasons independent of anybody’s intent and intervention; (b) created by somebody with hostile intent; (c) created by somebody with good intent (e.g., to create useful, developing difficulties, etc.) Opportunities of integration of approaches to coping behavior and to hostile intent attribution are discussed. Results of a study of coping with problems created by others vs. problems caused by reasons independent of anybody’s intent are presented.
Summarizing the results of different researches on intercultural interaction, we can state that people feel tension in intercultural contacts when they perceive the situation as threatening their well-being. There are also many empirical evidences that people belonging to different cultures understand well-being in different ways. This understanding depends also on social, economic and other factors. Thereby it is important to study general relationships of subjective well-being and intercultural tolerance and cultural specifics of these relationships. Objectives of the empirical study was to analyze the satisfaction with life as an important factor of cross-cultural interaction; to reveal cultural specifics of modern representations of subjective well-being, and interrelations of the styles of intercultural interaction with subjective well-being in different cultures. Methods: Scales of: Psychological well-being (Ryff), Life Satisfaction (Neugarten, Havighurst, & Tobin), Subjective Happiness (Lyubomirsky & Lepper), General Communicative Tolerance (Boiko) and Ethnic Identity Types (Soldatova, Ryzhova), Student’s T-test, Spearman's rank correlation. Sample: 330 persons (18-55 years old) of 10 different nations and 5 religions. By the time of the survey, all the participants had lived in Russia for some (not less than 3) years, all of them lived in some biggest Russian cities.Results: It was discovered, that people’s satisfaction with their lives directly relates to general and intercultural tolerance. People, more satisfied with their lives, are usually better control their negative emotions, adapt to changing situations, forgive others’ mistakes. Such people admit their and others’ ethnicity and more rarely exhibit extremism in inter-ethnic relations, although they often avoid contact with other ethnic groups. Cross-cultural differences in well-being were revealed among residents of modern Russian big cities. In particular, people belonging to the Jewish religion, were significantly more satisfied with their lives than all the others were. People brought up in the Orthodox culture, were the least satisfied. In many subjective well-being indicators, representatives of the Buddhist and Muslim cultures showed quite good results. Different statistically significant connections between subjective well-being and tolerance were revealed in cultural subgroups. For example, for people belonging to Jewish religion, general tolerance is associated mostly with meaningfulness of life and openness to the world; and ethnic tolerance is associated to environmental mastery and personal growth. For Buddhists meaningfulness of life positively correlates with general and ethnic tolerance, and personal growth correlates only with ethnic tolerance. Muslims showed the similar results, but besides – the correlations of both types of tolerance with ppurposefulness and overall mood tone. For Orthodox Christians, both types of tolerance is mostly related to positive relations with others and overall level of subjective well-being. Conclusions: the life satisfaction and subjective well-being are important factors of intercultural interactions. There are common and culturally specific mechanisms of these factors interaction. In psychological support of cross-cultural interaction it is important to take into consideration cultural differences in well-being understanding and its relations with general and intercultural tolerance.
The article describes the program of psychological training sessions on coping behavior for survivors of sextrafficking. The program includes art therapy, Gestalt and existential techniques of group work, as well as elements of social-psychological training. In addition to group training sessions we held individual psychological counseling session with the survivors, using cognitive therapy, systemic family counseling and psychotrauma work techniques.
The objectives of the study were to reveal cultural specifics of modern life values and subjective well-being, individual and cultural values interrelations, life values and subjective well-being correlations at Russian residents, belonging to different religions. The main methods were Scales of: Value Orientations Actual Structure (Bubnova), Psychological well-being (Ryff), Life Satisfaction (Neugarten, Havighurst, & Tobin), Subjective Happiness (Lyubomirsky & Lepper), Student’s T-test, Spearman's rank correlation. The sample consisted of 330 persons (18-55 years old) of 10 different nations and 5 religions. By the time of the survey all the participants had lived in Russia for some (not less than 3) years. For each studied religious groups their dominant life values were revealed. It was discovered, that people of different cultures associate their well-being and lives satisfaction with different life values. However, in general, life satisfaction correlates with those values, which are less important for certain culture. Perhaps, persons, oriented on traditional and culturally important values are less happy than those, who are oriented for their individual ones. May be in assessing realization of individual values people use their own criteria, which are not as strict as criteria of common cultural values’ realization. The results of this study allow us to draw the following conclusions. Significant cross-cultural differences in life-values and subjective well-being have their sources in religious attitudes and settings. People of different cultures associate their well-being and lives satisfaction with different values. Generally, well-being and life satisfaction are directly related to the values, less important in certain culture.
The article is devoted to personality traits in choosing coping strategies of behavior in an organizational conflict. The research deals with such personality traits as empathy, locus of control, anxiety, self-appraisal and temperament. The author examines the influence of gender, age, working and managerial experience of an employee on the choice of coping strategies.
The distractive effects on attentional task performance in different paradigms are analyzed in this paper. I demonstrate how distractors may negatively affect (interference effect), positively (redundancy effect) or neutrally (null effect). Distractor effects described in literature are classified in accordance with their hypothetical source. The general rule of the theory is also introduced. It contains the formal prediction of the particular distractor effect, based on entropy and redundancy measures from the mathematical theory of communication (Shannon, 1948). Single- vs dual-process frameworks are considered for hypothetical mechanisms which underpin the distractor effects. Distractor profiles (DPs) are also introduced for the formalization and simple visualization of experimental data concerning the distractor effects. Typical shapes of DPs and their interpretations are discussed with examples from three frequently cited experiments. Finally, the paper introduces hierarchical hypothesis that states the level-fashion modulating interrelations between distractor effects of different classes.
This article describes the expierence of studying factors influencing the social well-being of educational migrants as mesured by means of a psychological well-being scale (A. Perrudet-Badoux, G.A. Mendelsohn, J.Chiche, 1988) previously adapted for Russian by M.V. Sokolova. A statistical analysis of the scale's reliability is performed. Trends in dynamics of subjective well-being are indentified on the basis the correlations analysis between the condbtbions of adaptation and its success rate, and potential mechanisms for developing subjective well-being among student migrants living in student hostels are described. Particular attention is paid to commuting as a factor of adaptation.