The article presents study the influence of the salience of ethnic identity on choice migrant’s acculturation attitude according to the theory of social identity by H. Tajfel and J.C. Turner and the theory of cognitive dissonance by L. Festinger. We suppose that migrants experienced uncomfortable in new cultural environment due to the inconsistency of their own cultural values and norms with norms and values of the host society. In order to regain their cognitive structure in consistency, migrants need to choice their acculturation attitude. In many ways the choice of acculturation attitude due to the characteristics of ethnic identity. Strong salience of ethnic identity may facilitate separation, weak salience will not prevent assimilation.
The goal of the empirical study described in the article was to identify the cross-cultural characteristics of coping strategies and psychological well-being undertaken on a sample of the Russian (n = 70) and the French (n = 70) students aged 18 to 25 years old using the following psychodiagnostic tools: “Scale of psychological well-being” (by C. Riff, adapted by N. N. Lepeshinsky), “Ways of Coping Questionnaire” (WCQ, adapted by T. L. Kryukova and E. V. Kuftyak). Presumably, in different cultures, the preferences of coping strategies are related to the level of psychological well-being to varying degrees, probably depending on the general level of stress in society and the presence of a conscious experience of successful management of the environment. It was empirically established that the French students adopt the strategies of confrontation and distancing significantly more often than the Russians, and the Russian students adopt the strategy of taking over the responsibility much more often than the French students. The French students significantly exceed the Russian students in their satisfaction with interactions with other people, in the degree of self-acceptance, in the ability to manage their own environment, and to set conscious goals in life. The Russian students outperform the French students in terms of satisfaction with personal development. The effectiveness of coping strategies in regards of their relationship with psychological well-being varies in different cultures. Therefore, the strategy of planning the solution of the problem is the most effective strategy for the French students, and the reassessment of the situation is the most effective strategy for the Russian students.