Индекс гендерного неравенства - 2016
Gender inequality starts early in life. Parents tend to prefer boys over girls, which is manifested in reproductive behavior, marital life, and parents’ pastimes and investments in their children. While social media and sharing information about children (so-called “sharenting”) have become an integral part of parenthood, whether and how gender preference shapes the online behavior of users are not well known. In this paper we use public posts made by 635,665 users from Saint Petersburg on a popular Russian social networking site, to investigate public mentions of daughters and sons on social media. We find that both men and women mention sons more often than daughters in their posts. We also find that posts featuring sons receive more “likes” on average. Our results indicate that girls are underrepresented in parents’ digital narratives about their children, in a country with an above-average ranking on gender parity. This gender imbalance may send a message that girls are less important than boys or that they deserve less attention, thus reinforcing gender inequality from an early age.
A woman’s career begins with the choice of a professional path and advances with life-long learning, but her success can be impeded by gender asymmetry. Despite changes in working conditions, legal norms, and social policy, the gender gap is consistently reproduced, leading to “stalled progress.” Our analysis of literature showed that the search for subtle, yet resilient mechanisms responsible for the reproduction of gender inequality in Russian companies will be most efficient if it is based on the following theoretical concepts: 1) the “gendered organisations” approach, which differs distinctly from other methods and allows researchers to analyse gender inequality on both the structural and the regulatory level; 2) on the concepts of career capital and social capital, which enable us to synthesize individual and structural levels of analysis; 3) on the model of “a creative organization” and upon investigating the consequences of gender inequality for the development of both an individual working woman and the organisation as a whole. In Russia, studies of gender inequality that apply current approaches are seldom carried out; many researchers rely on the “gender role approach”, which is considered outdated by the global scientific community.
The theoretical analysis also allowed the authors to formulate two hypotheses for further empirical testing: 1 — a working woman includes gender in the attributes that are important for career advancement; and 2 — an organisation is perceived as less creative if its employees observe the signs of gender inequality in its structure and operations. It is suggested that a social psychological model of career success factors for a working woman should include, on the one hand, the organisational context (informal structure, norms and regulations, etc.), and on the other — individual social strategies (including strategies that use career capital to eliminate gender inequality). It is concluded that key mechanisms for gender inequality reproduction are the mechanisms associated with social capital and its development, which have not been sufficiently investigated.
The article summarizes the most popular theoretical approaches to systematic gender inequality in Islamic societies, and particularly in the Arab countries. Gender inequity in the region is a matter of international concern in Academia and among politicians, though it is still understudied due to the lack of reliable empirical data. Scholars study the problem of female oppression in predominantly Islamic societies from cultural and religious, historical, economic and institutional, and critically feminist standpoints. However, the discourse that could unite those approaches is yet young, which leads to obvious lacunae in academic knowledge.
Several approaches to the concept of fatherhood present in Western sociological tradition are analyzed and compared: biological determinism, social constructivism and biosocial theory. The problematics of fatherhood and men’s parental practices is marginalized in modern Russian social research devoted to family and this fact makes the traditional inequality in family relations, when the father’s role is considered secondary compared to that of mother, even stronger. However, in Western critical men’s studies several stages can be outlined: the development of “sex roles” paradigm (biological determinism), the emergence of the hegemonic masculinity concept, inter-disciplinary stage (biosocial theory). According to the approach of biological determinism, the role of a father is that of the patriarch, he continues the family line and serves as a model for his ascendants. Social constructivism looks into man’s functions in the family from the point of view of masculine pressure and establishing hegemony over a woman and children. Biosocial theory aims to unite the biological determinacy of fatherhood with social, cultural and personal context. It is shown that these approaches are directly connected with the level of the society development, marriage and family perceptions, the level of egality of gender order.
This article is talking about state management and cultural policy, their nature and content in term of the new tendency - development of postindustrial society. It mentioned here, that at the moment cultural policy is the base of regional political activity and that regions can get strong competitive advantage if they are able to implement cultural policy successfully. All these trends can produce elements of new economic development.