Предисловие к тематической подборке статей по материалам Международного симпозиума "Л.С. Выготский и современное детство"
Past 2016 was the year of the 120th anniversary of Lev Semenovich Vygotsky. The anniversary was widely celebrated in academic circles, associated with his deyatelnosti, and the range of his interests and areas of humanitarian knowledge, in which a significant contribution Vygotsky, surprisingly wide. In Moscow in November last year was the big event - the international Congress for the 120th anniversary of L. S. Vygotsky. This is a series of parallel scientific events, which were held on different scientific areas: HSE, MSU, RGGU, msupe... Perhaps, it is a scientific act can be called unique. More than 80 years have passed since then, as HP Vygotsky completed his earthly life, but his thoughts, his view of the development continue to be relevant and interesting. The more interesting that there are research and new facts, to understand which the views of the scientist asking another required interpretation significance.
The author refl ects upon the book The Sources of cultural-historical psychology: philosophical-humanitarian context by V. Zinchenko, B. Pruzhinin, T. Schedrina. Moscow, 2010.
The field of cultural-historical psychology originated in the work of Lev Vygotsky and the Vygotsky Circle in the Soviet Union more than eighty years ago, and has now established a powerful research tradition in Russia and the West. The Cambridge Handbook of Cultural-Historical Psychology is the first volume to systematically present cultural-historical psychology as an integrative/holistic developmental science of mind, brain, and culture. Its main focus is the inseparable unity of the historically evolving human mind, brain, and culture, and the ways to understand it. The contributors are major international experts in the field, and include authors of major works on Lev Vygotsky, direct collaborators and associates of Alexander Luria, and renowned neurologist Oliver Sacks. The handbook will be of interest to students and scholars in the fields of psychology, education, humanities and neuroscience.
The article addresses the views of G. Shpet, L. Vygotsky, M. Bakhtin andothers on art's influence on one's personality andcognitive andaffective spheres. They hadtheir own understanding of the whole issue andof catharsis in particular. The authors focuses on the analysis of inner andouter forms of works of art andassumes that, if reached, the inner form has the strongest influence on man: it enriches andbroadens one's own inner form of active contemplator of work of art.
Art, cultural consciousness, cultural-historical psychology, inner andouter form, Perception, Understanding, catharsis
The article deals with the clauses or preconditions of language and culture acquisition. Following G. G. Shpet, A. A. Uchtomsky, M. Heidegger, N. A. Bernshtein and V. V. Bibikhin, the author qualifies them as «pre-experiential origin». This «origin» is regarded as direct intelligible intuition, spiritual integral, non-differentiated unity: I understand, I think, I can. Spontaneous character of this origin does not mean its primitiveness. Non-mediated pre-experiential origin develops in its differentiation that comes to life in joint activity, in interflowing communication giving birth to multiple forms of culture-mediated behavior. Development of these forms hampers perception and understanding of the world in its immediacy but also enriches these acts. Interchange and interaction of the immediate and the mediated is regarded as a necessary condition of human development and productive activity. The author questions the idea of division psychological functions into natural and cultural (higher), assumed in cultural-historical psychology.
Institutions affect investment decisions, including investments in human capital. Hence institutions are relevant for the allocation of talent. Good market-supporting institutions attract talent to productive value-creating activities, whereas poor ones raise the appeal of rent-seeking. We propose a theoretical model that predicts that more talented individuals are particularly sensitive in their career choices to the quality of institutions, and test these predictions on a sample of around 95 countries of the world. We find a strong positive association between the quality of institutions and graduation of college and university students in science, and an even stronger negative correlation with graduation in law. Our findings are robust to various specifications of empirical models, including smaller samples of former colonies and transition countries. The quality of human capital makes the distinction between educational choices under strong and weak institutions particularly sharp. We show that the allocation of talent is an important link between institutions and growth.