Углеродное регулирование: варианты и вызовы для России
The paper focuses on main economic instruments for greenhouse gas emissions regulation (carbon tax, cap-and-trade, hybrid instruments) and aims at revealing the possible ways of emissions regulation in Russia. The main objective is to identify criteria of instrument choice and develop the framework of optimal instrument design required for establishing national system of greenhouse gas emissions regulation in Russia.
First of all, the main outcome of the paper is that the choice of instrument is secondary to the establishment of the quantitative target of emissions reduction: with the current target, the use of any economic instrument is meaningless. Secondly, under current conditions of uncertain economic and technological pathway, critical dependence on energy prices along with institutional underdevelopment of Russia, the optimal system should contain the elements of price regulation. It should also be simple and transparent. Carbon tax is therefore considered to become the possible option, although, being not just the add-on to the fiscal system, but an integral component of large-scale low-carbon development strategy of Russia.