Руководитель как трансформационный лидер: роль личностных качеств и управленческих практик
To date, most research on leadership has focused on the positive effects of transformational leaders on employee attitudes, behaviors, and performance. Much less attention has been given to the antecedents of transformational leadership behaviors. Drawing from follower-centric perspective of leadership, we examined subordinates’ and supervisors’ personal characteristics, work-related perceptions and attitudes, and observed managerial practices as predictors of transformational leadership. The sample included 112 employees from two organizations (IT and manufacturing). Results revealed that supervisors’ transformational leadership is significantly predicted by subordinates’ agreeableness; perceived justice of performance-based payments and career promotions; practices of professional training and implementation of employees’ initiatives. Among these, perceived justice of performance-based promotions showed the highest relative importance for predicting supervisors’ transformational leadership. Although such supervisors’ personal characteristic as conscientiousness was positively correlated with transformational leadership, its effect disappeared in the integrative model including subordinates’ traits and perceptions and management practices. Our results contribute to the understanding of transformational leadership as a “really existing” phenomenon derived from supervisors’ positive practices as well as to knowledge of how organizational context may encourage line and middle managers’ transformational leadership behaviors.
The article reveals the genesis of the concept of «individuality». Also provides a description of the essential qualities, given their correlation with the personal qualities of the Big Five. We introduce three methodological principle of personality description, an example of identity based on the basic qualities.
The article reveals the findings of the experimental work that has been done in order to compare three Russian educational systems (traditional system, Zankov’s system and the system of Elkonin- Davidov) in their potentials to develop the junior schoolchild intellectual abilities and personality traits. The complex of indices (intellectual abilities and personality traits) has been identified to examine the educational systems. They are the indices of attention, memory, thinking, imagination and personality traits (achievement motive, learning motives and empathy). As a result of conducted experiment of the students’ development in different educational systems it has been identified that each of examined systems are ‘developmental’ however each develops different mental functions and operations.
The notion that certain management practices at all levels create substantial competitive advantages for the company in the market received a lot of attention in the academic community over the years. A large body of work was accumulated as a result, though it appears that a comprehensive understanding of the relationship between management practices and firm performance is still lacking. This study is a part of a larger project aiming at closing this gap. The objective of this study was to create a typology of companies based on efficiency, using a number of objective criteria obtained from publicly available information.
The report traces the development of the transformational leadership concept. Emphasizes that the interaction between leader and subordinates is constructed in such a way that the satisfaction of the needs for self-actualization and professional fulfillment contributes to the achievement of organizational goals.
Using data from Italy, Spain, and Germany (N = 1,569), this study investigated the role of basic values (universalism and security) and basic traits (openness and agreeableness) in predicting perceptions of the consequences of immigration. In line with Schwartz’s (1992) theory, we conceptualized security as having two distinct components, one concerned with safety of the self (personal security) and the other with harmony and stability of larger groups and of society (group security). Structural equation modeling revealed that universalism values underlie perceptions that immigration has positive consequences and group security values underlie perceptions that it has negative consequences. Personal security makes no unique, additional contribution. Multi-group analyses revealed that these associations are invariant across the three countries except for a stronger link between universalism and perceptions of the consequences of immigration in Spain. To examine whether values mediate relations of traits to perceptions of immigration, we used the Five Factor Model. Findings supported a full mediation model. Individuals’ traits of openness and agreeableness explained significant variance in security and universalism values. Basic values, in turn, explained perceptions of the consequences of immigration.
One of the most important indicators of company's success is the increase of its value. The article investigates traditional methods of company's value assessment and the evidence that the application of these methods is incorrect in the new stage of economy. So it is necessary to create a new method of valuation based on the new main sources of company's success that is its intellectual capital.
In the past decades, there has been a transformation of management approaches from management by instructions to management by values, where special attention is paid to employees’ engagement in the company management. This is the most promising approach of employee management, which, however, requires a new vision and the implementation of modern management practices. The article presents the results of large-scale empirical study of monitoring values and management practices in Russian and global companies operating in Russia. The survey involved 1,530 companies from 10 main industries, including 80% of Russian, 6% of foreign and 14% of global companies, using quantitative methods of collection and statistical methods of data processing. The analysis of modern management practices has been carried out across five main areas: 1. communication; 2. Empowerment and leadership; 3. problem solving and decision making; 4. conflict management; and 5. motivation. It made it possible to characterize modern approaches of management in Russia and to reveal the potential of new management practices effectively used by global companies to enhance the competitiveness and business efficiency of Russian companies.
Flexible design in contracting may be the next technical evolution that is needed to cope with Information Age levels of complexity and risk. Contract design and management practices that accommodate (or even promote) more flexibility in dealing may be more resilient to inevitable changes. In addition, they may allow innovation and help create new opportunities. Stability remains vital, of course. But greater flexibility is also needed. The key question becomes: How can greater flexibility in contracting be realized while maintaining necessary levels of stability for them to operate legally? In other words, how can better contract design and management simultaneously advance both stability and flexibility? Arguably by three strands of reform coming together: (1) stronger collaborative, or at least more communicative relationships, among the contracting parties and within the organization of each party; (2) far better contract design and information design practices that engage stakeholders, enhance managerial-legal decision-making, and involve communicating contracts differently; and (3) better working relationships between the legal profession and the commercial clients they serve. Our chapter will treat each of those three strands.
Smoking is a problem, bringing signifi cant social and economic costs to Russiansociety. However, ratifi cation of the World health organization Framework conventionon tobacco control makes it possible to improve Russian legislation accordingto the international standards. So, I describe some measures that should be taken bythe Russian authorities in the nearest future, and I examine their effi ciency. By studyingthe international evidence I analyze the impact of the smoke-free areas, advertisementand sponsorship bans, tax increases, etc. on the prevalence of smoking, cigaretteconsumption and some other indicators. I also investigate the obstacles confrontingthe Russian authorities when they introduce new policy measures and the public attitudetowards these measures. I conclude that there is a number of easy-to-implementanti-smoking activities that need no fi nancial resources but only a political will.