Long-Distance Fiber-Optic Quantum Key Distribution Using Superconducting Detectors
This paper presents the results of experimental studies on quantum key distribution in optical fiber using superconducting detectors. Key generation was obtained on an experimental setup based on a self-compensation optical circuit with an optical fiber length of 101.1 km. It was first shown that photon polarization encoding can be used for quantum key distribution in optical fiber over a distance in excess of 300 km.
We discuss the possibility of polarization state reconstruction and measurement over 302 km by Superconducting Single- Photon Detectors (SSPDs). Because of the excellent characteristics and the possibility to be effectively coupled to singlemode optical fiber many applications of the SSPD have already been reported. The most impressive one is the quantum key distribution (QKD) over 250 km distance. This demonstration shows further possibilities for the improvement of the characteristics of quantum-cryptographic systems such as increasing the bit rate and the quantum channel length, and decreasing the quantum bit error rate (QBER). This improvement is possible because SSPDs have the best characteristics in comparison with other single-photon detectors. We have demonstrated the possibility of polarization state reconstruction and measurement over 302.5 km with superconducting single-photon detectors. The advantage of an autocompensating optical scheme, also known as "plugandplay" for quantum key distribution, is high stability in the presence of distortions along the line. To increase the distance of quantum key distribution with this optical scheme we implement the superconducting single photon detectors (SSPD). At the 5 MHz pulse repetition frequency and the average photon number equal to 0.4 we measured a 33 bit/s quantum key generation for a 101.7 km single mode ber quantum channel. The extremely low SSPD dark count rate allowed us to keep QBER at 1.6% level.
A new protocol for quantum key distribution through empty space is proposed. Apart from the quantum mechanical restrictions on distinguishability of non-orthogonal states, the protocol employs additional restrictions imposed by special relativity. The protocol ensures generation of a secure key even for the source generating non-strictly single-photon quantum states and for arbitrary losses in quantum communication channel.
The problem of quantum key distribution security in channels with large losses is still open. Quasi-single-photon sources of quantum states with losses in the quantum communication channel open up the possibility of attacking with unambiguous state discrimination (USD) measurements, resulting in a loss of privacy. In this letter, the problem is solved by counting the classic reference pulses. Conservation of the number of counts of intense coherent pulses makes it impossible to conduct USD measurements. Moreover, the losses in the communication channel are considered to be unknown in advance and are subject to change throughout the series parcels. Unlike other protocols, differential phase shift (Inoue et al 2002 Phys. Rev. Lett. 89 037902, Inoue et al 2003 Phys. Rev. A 68 022317, Takesue et al 2007 Nat. Photon. 1 343, Wen et al 2009 Phys. Rev. Lett. 103 170503) and coherent one way (Stucki et al 2005 Appl. Phys. Lett. 87 194108, Branciard et al 2005 Appl. Phys. Lett. 87 194108, Branciard et al 2008 New J. Phys. 10 013031, Stucki et al 2008 Opt. Express 17 13326), the simplicity of the protocol makes it possible to carry out a complete analysis of its security.
In the paper by Gleim et al (2016 Opt. Express 24 2619), it was declared that the system of quantum cryptography, exploiting quantum key distribution (QKD) protocol BB84 with the additional reference state and encoding in a sub-carrier, is able to distribute secret keys at a distance of 210 km. The following shows that a simple attack realized with a beam splitter results in a loss of privacy of the keys over substantially smaller distances. It turns out that the actual length of the secret key transmission for the QKD system encoding in the sub-carrier frequency is ten times less than that declared in Gleim et al (2016 Opt. Express 24 2619). Therefore it is impossible to safely use the keys when distributed at a larger length of the communication channel than shown below. The maximum communication distance does not exceed 22 km, even in the most optimistic scenario.
The problem of designing stabilizing resonator (SR) for a 4-mm wavelengths range coaxial magnetron with low level of output power has been considered. The recommendations for choosen the coaxial resonator external to internal diameter relations depending on technical project requirements are developed.
This volume presents new results in the study and optimization of information transmission models in telecommunication networks using different approaches, mainly based on theiries of queueing systems and queueing networks .
The paper provides a number of proposed draft operational guidelines for technology measurement and includes a number of tentative technology definitions to be used for statistical purposes, principles for identification and classification of potentially growing technology areas, suggestions on the survey strategies and indicators. These are the key components of an internationally harmonized framework for collecting and interpreting technology data that would need to be further developed through a broader consultation process. A summary of definitions of technology already available in OECD manuals and the stocktaking results are provided in the Annex section.