Abuse of Superior Bargaining Power and the Application of Chinese Anti-Monopoly Law
Superior bargaining power arises when one trading partner becomes dependent on the other. It can be abused to exploit the counterparty or to grab profi ts within a product value chain. It is necessary to apply anti-monopoly law to superior bargaining power because, firstly, abuse of a superior bargaining power distorts the product value chain and, finally, leads to higher prices or a decline in product quality. When superior bargaining power originates from an intellectual property right, its abuse will hinder both the application of the subject technology and competition in adjacent or downstream markets. Secondly, the economic relationships that abuse of superior bargaining power covers are often macroscopical. Compared to other laws and legislative proposals, anti-monopoly law is the most appropriate way to regulate superior bargaining power.
This On-Topic revisits the complex issues rising in the food sector and its value chain. Both the European Union and the US competition authorities have scrutinized relationships between food chain actors. The increasing market concentration raises new challenges for competition enforcement authorities dealing with the creation of new powerful actors at the distribution but also at the factor of production (input) levels. The concept of superior bargaining power has played a key role, sometimes criticised, in order to assess these relationships. The papers also discuss the critical intersection of competition law with public policy, with the aim to preserve sustainability, food safety and the stability of agricultural markets
The chapter explores the difficult search for legitimacy in using unlicensed media content by the Russian social network, VKontakte, and other Russian Internet companies. Russia’s economy and society went through several stages, from complete negligence of intellectual rights to step-by-step shaping of new compromise principles to make consumers to pay at least something and to persuade right holder to accept at least something for music. For a better understanding of the cultural background of this story, we look back to the evolution of Russian intellectual property rights and observe similar “legitimacy of the illegal” phenomenon during several stages of its development. Two important generalizations are: (1) when deciding to act illegally, the actor wants to maximize the happiness of its most important stakeholders, and (2) the decision to change the business model and search for new legitimacy almost never comes from moral arguments, but is always made under external pressure.
The author of the present Article dwells on lately adopted (approved) alterations of administrative legislation, in conformance with which sanctions stipulated by Articles 14.31 - 14.33 of the Code of the Russian Federation on Administrative Violations for Legal Persons, for the first time in the history of antimonopoly legislation (Antitrust laws, statutes) of our country, envisage the possibility of charging an operating fine for legal person's wrongdoing related to restriction of competition or improper use of their dominant position on the market.
The article is devoted to a particular form of freedom of assembly — the right to counter-demonstrate. The author underlines the value of this right as an element of democratic society, but also acknowledges the risk of violent actions among participants of opposing demonstrations. Due to this risk, the government may adopt adequate measures restricting the right to counter-demonstrate, certain types of which are analyzed in this paper.
Development of standards of international controllability is reviewed in the article. Institutional approach is applied to development of international legal regime of Energy Charter. Definition of controllability is connected to development of international standards of dispute settlement, which are described in the article in detail. In connection with controllability, Russian interest, defense of investment in European Union and ecological investment encouragement, is reviewed in the article.
мировое управление и управляемость, Мировая экономика, международное экономическое право, энергетическая хартия, International control and controllability, International economics, international economic law, Energy Charter
международное частное право; недвижимость; ; школа бартолистов; бартолисты; теория статутов; статуарная теория/