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## Флуктуационная чувствительность сверхпроводящего болометрического смесителя на эффекте разогрева электронного газа

Interest in research in the terahertz range is driven by a great number of various applications, where terahertz instruments may play a leading role. To name just a few, such applications include study of the cosmic microwave background radiation and the distribution of the dark matter, medicine, navigation, fire alarm, security systems and environmental monitoring. The paper discusses the possibility of using a receiver based on the hot-electron effect in superconducting films as an imaging system. We present the results of the noise equivalent temperature difference (NETD) measurements performed with a hot-electron bolometer mixer made from a thin superconducting film. The receiver with a noise temperature of ~ 3800 K at a local oscillator frequency of 300 GHz a bandwidth of 500 MHz and an integration time of 1 s has offered an NETD of 0.5 K. We have also developed a technique that enabled us to reduce the contribution of the mixer gain fluctuations to the overall system instability. As of this writing, the above value of the NETD is the lowest value offered for this type of receiver, which indicates the possibility to use such receivers in real-time imaging systems. The technique offered in the paper for achieving the limiting value of the NETD offers an alternative to the phase-locking scheme.

In this paper, the dispersion characteristics of slow-wave structures suitable for use in devices in the terahertz range are calculated. Slow-wave structures of “winding waveguide” and “counter pins” types can be considered as suitable systems. Analysis of dispersion characteristics of slow-wave structure was carried out by a waveguide-resonator model, which is built for the slow-wave structure of “winding waveguide”-type taking into account a channel for the electron beam. Waveguide-resonator model is consisted of quadripoles which describe the waveguide segments. This model is most accurately reflects the structure of the field in the winding waveguide. Dispersion characteristics were calculated according to the program stated in this paper. These characteristics are used to construct model of millimeter traveling-wave tube, which is in this case the chain of quadripoles. The most common in the solution of these problems is the discrete approach [1]. The difference form of electrodynamic theory of excitation is used to justify the use of a mathematical model of the discrete interaction description [2].

We characterize superconducting antenna-coupled NbN hot-electron bolometer (HEB) for direct detection of THz radiation operating at a temperature of 9.0 K. At signal frequency of 2.5 THz, the measured value of the optical noise equivalent power is 2.0×10-13 W-Hz-0.5. The estimated value of the energy resolution is about 1.5 aJ. This value was confirmed in the experiment with pulsed 1.55-μm laser employed as a radiation source. The directly measured detector energy resolution is 2 aJ. The obtained risetime of pulses from the detector is 130 ps. This value was determined by the properties of the RF line. These characteristics make our detector a device-of-choice for a number of practical applications associated with detection of short THz pulses.

We report on the development of a highly sensitive optical receiver for heterodyne IR spectroscopy at the communication wavelength of 1.5 μm (200 THz) by use of a superconducting hot-electron bolometer. The results are important for the resolution of narrow spectral molecular lines in the near-IR range for the study of astronomical objects, as well as for quantum optical tomography and fiber-optic sensing. Receiver configuration as well as fiber-to-detector light coupling designs are discussed. Light absorption of the superconducting detectors was enhanced by nano-optical antennas, which were coupled to optical fibers. An intermediate frequency (IF) bandwidth of about 3 GHz was found in agreement with measurements at 300 GHz, and a noise figure of about 25 dB was obtained that was only 10 dB above the quantum limit.

In this paper, dispersion characteristics of "serpentine”-type slow-wave structures, which are promising for the terahertz range use, are calculated. For 3D-modeling, HFSS was used. Program described in work was used in the calculation. Using the obtained characteristics, octopole chain model of the slow-wave structure is constructed. Discrete approach is advisable in solving these problems. Justification of the applied mathematical model for the discrete interaction follows from the difference form of electrodynamic theory of excitation [3]. Requirements to coefficients of the resulting finite-difference equation are high, because their accuracy determines how close the mathematical model of the discrete interaction to the physical laws is. These coefficients have a certain electrodynamic sense and are obtained through the octopole transmission matrix coefficients. In turn, this octopole is a mathematical model of the resonator slow-wave structure cell.

The dynamics of a two-component Davydov-Scott (DS) soliton with a small mismatch of the initial location or velocity of the high-frequency (HF) component was investigated within the framework of the Zakharov-type system of two coupled equations for the HF and low-frequency (LF) fields. In this system, the HF field is described by the linear Schrödinger equation with the potential generated by the LF component varying in time and space. The LF component in this system is described by the Korteweg-de Vries equation with a term of quadratic influence of the HF field on the LF field. The frequency of the DS soliton`s component oscillation was found analytically using the balance equation. The perturbed DS soliton was shown to be stable. The analytical results were confirmed by numerical simulations.

By using superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) magnetometry, we investigated anisotropic high-field (H less than or similar to 7T) low-temperature (10 K) magnetization response of inhomogeneous nanoisland FeNi films grown by rf sputtering deposition on Sitall (TiO2) glass substrates. In the grown FeNi films, the FeNi layer nominal thickness varied from 0.6 to 2.5 nm, across the percolation transition at the d(c) similar or equal to 1.8 nm. We discovered that, beyond conventional spin-magnetism of Fe21Ni79 permalloy, the extracted out-of-plane magnetization response of the nanoisland FeNi films is not saturated in the range of investigated magnetic fields and exhibits paramagnetic-like behavior. We found that the anomalous out-of-plane magnetization response exhibits an escalating slope with increase in the nominal film thickness from 0.6 to 1.1 nm, however, it decreases with further increase in the film thickness, and then practically vanishes on approaching the FeNi film percolation threshold. At the same time, the in-plane response demonstrates saturation behavior above 1.5-2T, competing with anomalously large diamagnetic-like response, which becomes pronounced at high magnetic fields. It is possible that the supported-metal interaction leads to the creation of a thin charge-transfer (CT) layer and a Schottky barrier at the FeNi film/Sitall (TiO2) interface. Then, in the system with nanoscale circular domains, the observed anomalous paramagnetic-like magnetization response can be associated with a large orbital moment of the localized electrons. In addition, the inhomogeneous nanoisland FeNi films can possess spontaneous ordering of toroidal moments, which can be either of orbital or spin origin. The system with toroidal inhomogeneity can lead to anomalously strong diamagnetic-like response. The observed magnetization response is determined by the interplay between the paramagnetic-and diamagnetic-like contributions.

Radiation conditions are described for various space regions, radiation-induced effects in spacecraft materials and equipment components are considered and information on theoretical, computational, and experimental methods for studying radiation effects are presented. The peculiarities of radiation effects on nanostructures and some problems related to modeling and radiation testing of such structures are considered.

This volume presents new results in the study and optimization of information transmission models in telecommunication networks using different approaches, mainly based on theiries of queueing systems and queueing networks .

The paper provides a number of proposed draft operational guidelines for technology measurement and includes a number of tentative technology definitions to be used for statistical purposes, principles for identification and classification of potentially growing technology areas, suggestions on the survey strategies and indicators. These are the key components of an internationally harmonized framework for collecting and interpreting technology data that would need to be further developed through a broader consultation process. A summary of definitions of technology already available in OECD manuals and the stocktaking results are provided in the Annex section.