Monitoring the Performance of Educational Institutions: A Spur for the Implementation of Systemic Changes in Higher Education. Part Two
The article discusses a comprehensive reporting and monitoring framework used to evaluate the performance of state and private higher education institutions. By analyzing diversified indicators including regulatory compliance, organizational and economic indicators, training and research, and other metrics, the authors spotlight key developments taking place in the Russian higher education system as well as areas where reorganization/optimization measures are required.
The PISA 2009 data (in reading) investigated the effectiveness of one year of schooling in seven countries: Russia, Czech Republic, Hungary, Slovakia, Germany, Canada, and Brazil. We used an instrumental variable, which allowed us to estimate the effect of one year of schooling through the fuzzy method of regression discontinuity. The analysis was performed both for regular and vocational education programs collectively as well as individually for regular schools. It was found that in general for Russian students enrolled in all programs, the effectiveness of one year of schooling is insignificant. In countries that practice the early separation of students into regular and vocational programs, the effectiveness of schooling is lower than in countries where all fifteen-year-olds are enrolled in regular programs. The effectiveness of one year of schooling for students enrolled in regular educational programs is significant in all countries. Students enrolled in vocational programs typically perform more poorly than those enrolled in regular programs. The strength of the relationship between the socioeconomic status of the student’s family and the effectiveness of schooling are highly dependent on the education system and vary from country to country. For Russia, as well as for some other countries, the effectiveness of schooling does not depend on socioeconomic status. The significance of these results for the evaluation of the effectiveness of schooling, and in particular for the fair evaluation of national achievement in countries that offer different educational trajectories, is discussed.
Competence in academic writing among university undergraduates has been a key area of research for over the last thirty years. However, the dominant status of English as the lingua franca of the global academic community has led to substantial changes in the academic language landscape of non-Anglophone countries. In particular, local traditions and practices of L1 academic writing within a university context tend to be undersupported while L2 (English) academic writing experience is treated as a top teaching priority. The present study, carried out with the help of the LIDHUM project team, reports results on the current role of academic writing in L1 vs. L2 in Russia. The questionnaire was developed for first- and third-year undergraduates of a leading national research university to pose such questions as: whether academic writing plays an important role in the university; whether L1 writing is supported; which L1 and L2 written genres students use; how much time students spend on classroom-based vs. home-based writing; whether written tasks require critical thinking competence; whether academic writing is supported; and how writing skills are developed. The paper focuses on L1/L2 similarities and differences as well as on first-year undergraduates’ (i.e., entry-level) writing competence vs. third-year students’ perceptions of writing skills. The study likewise reflects on developmental needs, which are also relevant for the European context.
Russian universities are eager to strengthen their competitiveness on Russian and foreign markets via promoting and developing universities’ brands. Evaluation of universities’ current brand position is one of the key strategic goals for Russian universities. Th e purpose of this study is to develop the set of 23 brand personality traits for brand evaluation of Russian uni versities. According to design of the study, one hundred and ninety eight students and graduates evaluated three brands of competitive Russian universities from a large Russian city (Nizhny Novgorod) by the set of personality traits. Based on evaluations, three factors of brand personality for surveyed Russian universities: «Trendy», «Expert», «Outgoing» were found. Th e study utilized a limited sample. Future studies should include more universities from other Russian cities for generalization of research fi ndings. Brand personalities of three Russian universities were evaluated and compared through identifi ed factors. Applications of observed traits and factors exist in fi elds of strategic brand management, positioning and promotion of Russian universities.
The article is devoted to the analysis on the Russian higher education monitoring system. It describes the rules of the monitoring and main characteristics of higher education system which are evaluated by monitoring’s indicators. It also considers indicators that are used in foreign education monitoring systems to describe the same characteristics of higher education. The author gives proposals on using additional indicators for more complete description of the characteristics of higher education considered in Russian monitoring.
Institutions affect investment decisions, including investments in human capital. Hence institutions are relevant for the allocation of talent. Good market-supporting institutions attract talent to productive value-creating activities, whereas poor ones raise the appeal of rent-seeking. We propose a theoretical model that predicts that more talented individuals are particularly sensitive in their career choices to the quality of institutions, and test these predictions on a sample of around 95 countries of the world. We find a strong positive association between the quality of institutions and graduation of college and university students in science, and an even stronger negative correlation with graduation in law. Our findings are robust to various specifications of empirical models, including smaller samples of former colonies and transition countries. The quality of human capital makes the distinction between educational choices under strong and weak institutions particularly sharp. We show that the allocation of talent is an important link between institutions and growth.