Стратегии управления запасами в интегрированных многоуровневых системах
Variety of inventory management models known in theory of inventory management. All of them divided into two groups: based on the optimal amount of order and based on the fixed time between adjacent deliveries. Existing models appropriate for the situations with determined demand per day and delivery time while in practice these two key parameters are variables and changes in accordance with certain law of distribution. Also, existing models usually don’t take into account variety of conditions, that exist in practice and effects the performance of supply chain, namely: discounts in dependence with amount of order, shelf life of the product, amount of safety stocks on different levels of SC, penalties for the deficit ant etc. The most interesting condition is the multilevel structure of stocks placement. It requires to take into account existence of not only focus companies inventories but also, for example, raw material and packaging inventories of the manufacturer, inventories of the finished goods at the distributors and inventories of other levels of SC during the optimization of the total logistical costs of the supply chain. Special conditions mentioned above makes the objective of making practically applicable mathematical model for the total logistics costs of the SC optimization extremely hard to solve.
Most known is the EOQ model, which despite its popularity has several crucial implementation conditions: determinate values of demand and length of logistic cycles; safety stock existence on different levels of supply chain and deficit cost are ignored; model considers local optimization – EOQ minimizes total logistics costs of given level of SC.
Formula for the two main inventory management strategies were found: based on the fixed order amount and based on the period between adjacent deliveries.