Effects of tDCS over Broca's area coupled with linguistic training are not specific to language
Navigated repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation in stroke rehabilitation (randomize double-blind sham-controlled study)
The problem of functional localization in the brain is one of the most fundamental in neuroscience. For this problem two opposite ideologies: "modular" versus "holistic" nature of the brain also known as "localism" and "holism" have been discussed for a long time (Flourens 1825; Luria 1967). The debate in favor of one or another ideology still can be traced at all methodological levels - from a cell to a system. In this opinion paper we want to raise a question - what is nowadays meant by mapping of the brain? In addition we want to highlight the necessity of being aware of occasionally occurring discontinuity in the research at different methodological scales.
The mechanisms of lateralization of language processing are still not fully understood by neurolinguistics today. The current study aims to study the relation between language lateralization and such factors as individual handedness, familial sinistrality and tractography metrics of the corpus callosum (CC). We collected fMRI and DTI data, as well as information about individual handedness and familial sinistrality in 50 neurologically healthy Russian speakers. According to the results, language lateralization is related to the volume and fractional anisotropy of CC, as well as individual handedness. Specifically, people with greater right-hand preference and people with a larger volume and higher fractional anisotropy of CC have greater lateralization of language-related activation to the left hemisphere of a brain.
This book presents an interdisciplinary approach to the problem of mental lexicon organization. Several models of visual word recognition as well as brain mechanisms of reading are discussed. Also, such basic neurolinguistic topics are reviewed here as brain structure and functioning, memory organization, models of the mental lexicon and lexical access, electrophysiological approach to speech and language research, aphasia’s types and developmental language disorders (SLI, developmental dyslexia), genetics of language impairments, and so on. Finally, this monograph gives the results of four eye tracking experiments on visual word recognition during reading.
The present book is address to a wide range of researchers (linguists, neurophysiologists, psychologists, artificial intelligence specialists, philosophers) who works are associated with cognitive brain research.
The terms "anodal" and "cathodal" are widely used to describe transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) of opposing polarities, often interpreted as excitatory and inhibitory, respectively. However, high-definition tDCS allows for complex electrode configurations that may not be characterized accurately as "anodal" and "cathodal."
To illustrate challenges to data interpretation that may result from unclarity about the neuromodulatory effects of different field orientations, we present two high-definition tDCS experiments in the language domain, with different electrode configurations. We also present the modeled electric fields for a traditional tDCS setup, showing how brain stimulation may far exceed target regions.
More research is warranted on the hypothesized inhibitory or excitatory effects of different electrode configurations. Moreover, conventional bicephalic 1 × 1 configurations using sponges or HD electrodes may not be accurately described by the terms "anodal" and "cathodal" either, as these terms only pertain to the desired effects over an area of interest, but not any other areas affected. Therefore, design and interpretation of (HD-)tDCS and conventional tDCS research studies should not be constrained by the anodal/cathodal dichotomy.
The book describes theinterdependent relations between the multilingualism and literary creativity.
Students' internet usage attracts the attention of many researchers in different countries. Differences in internet penetration in diverse countries lead us to ask about the interaction of medium and culture in this process. In this paper we present an analysis based on a sample of 825 students from 18 Russian universities and discuss findings on particularities of students' ICT usage. On the background of the findings of the study, based on data collected in 2008-2009 year during a project "A сross-cultural study of the new learning culture formation in Germany and Russia", we discuss the problem of plagiarism in Russia, the availability of ICT features in Russian universities and an evaluation of the attractiveness of different categories of ICT usage and gender specifics in the use of ICT.
The distractive effects on attentional task performance in different paradigms are analyzed in this paper. I demonstrate how distractors may negatively affect (interference effect), positively (redundancy effect) or neutrally (null effect). Distractor effects described in literature are classified in accordance with their hypothetical source. The general rule of the theory is also introduced. It contains the formal prediction of the particular distractor effect, based on entropy and redundancy measures from the mathematical theory of communication (Shannon, 1948). Single- vs dual-process frameworks are considered for hypothetical mechanisms which underpin the distractor effects. Distractor profiles (DPs) are also introduced for the formalization and simple visualization of experimental data concerning the distractor effects. Typical shapes of DPs and their interpretations are discussed with examples from three frequently cited experiments. Finally, the paper introduces hierarchical hypothesis that states the level-fashion modulating interrelations between distractor effects of different classes.
The results of cross-cultural research of implicit theories of innovativeness among students and teachers, representatives of three ethnocultural groups: Russians, the people of the North Caucasus (Chechens and Ingushs) and Tuvinians (N=804) are presented. Intergroup differences in implicit theories of innovativeness are revealed: the ‘individual’ theories of innovativeness prevail among Russians and among the students, the ‘social’ theories of innovativeness are more expressed among respondents from the North Caucasus, Tuva and among the teachers. Using the structural equations modeling the universal model of values impact on implicit theories of innovativeness and attitudes towards innovations is constructed. Values of the Openness to changes and individual theories of innovativeness promote the positive relation to innovations. Results of research have shown that implicit theories of innovativeness differ in different cultures, and values make different impact on the attitudes towards innovations and innovative experience in different cultures.