I consider constructions that involve the modal verb moch' or the modal adjective dolzhen and the subjunctive particle by. I argue that, with respect to the subjunctive, these modals behave differently from regular verbs. Their subjunctive is often functionally identical to the indicative; in contexts where other verbs obligatorily take the subjunctive form, these two predicates may use the indicative. The main factor that controls omissibility of the subjunctive particle is shown to be an epistemic interpretation. I consider some typical cases where the subjunctive and the indicative are synonymous for these predicates, and those where they are not. Thus, in the apodosis of conditional constructions the particle is often omitted, although, in general, Russian prefers a symmetrical use of the subjunctive in both protasis and apodosis. On the other hand, when in the protasis, the particle is not omitted. The subjunctive is often used with the modals for pragmatic purposes, such as politeness. The paper is based on the data from the Russian National Corpus.
The report presents the results of research into the speech act of invitation performed in English discourse. The analysis focuses on the language means of expressing an invitation in different communicative situations, special emphasis being placed on the communicative strategy of distancing which is used with the aim of softening unambiguous invitations. The empiric material for our investigation was selected from authentic works of English-speaking writers of the 21-st century, to be more precise, from the novels by Joan Rowling and Richelle Mead. The research is conducted within the framework of communicative linguistics, the theory of speech acts and pragmalinguistics.
Though the Russian infinitive is a non-finite form, it is frequently used independently, with or without the subjunctive particle by. This paper is an attempt to answer the question whether independent infinitival constructions should be considered as a result of insubordination (the term by Nicholas Evans). Basing on the data from Russian National Corpus, two semantic types of infinitival constructions are isolated. One may be referred to as evaluative infinitive (Emu by ostat'sja odnomu ‘It’s better if he stays alone’). The second construction may be called counterfactual non-evaluative infinitive (Ne minovat' by emu tjur'my, no pomogli rodstvenniki ‘He had all chances to go to prison, but his relatives helped him out’). Comparing these constructions with infinitival conditional clauses shows that the evaluative infinitive is a result of insubordination of the protasis of conditional clause, while the semantics of the non-evaluative counterfactual infinitive is a simple sum of the meanings of the infinitive and subjunctive categories.
The article considers different syntactic patterns for linking participial conditional clauses with the main clause in the context of Exodus 33:7.
The article is devoted to a particular form of freedom of assembly — the right to counter-demonstrate. The author underlines the value of this right as an element of democratic society, but also acknowledges the risk of violent actions among participants of opposing demonstrations. Due to this risk, the government may adopt adequate measures restricting the right to counter-demonstrate, certain types of which are analyzed in this paper.
Development of standards of international controllability is reviewed in the article. Institutional approach is applied to development of international legal regime of Energy Charter. Definition of controllability is connected to development of international standards of dispute settlement, which are described in the article in detail. In connection with controllability, Russian interest, defense of investment in European Union and ecological investment encouragement, is reviewed in the article.
мировое управление и управляемость, Мировая экономика, международное экономическое право, энергетическая хартия, International control and controllability, International economics, international economic law, Energy Charter
международное частное право; недвижимость; ; школа бартолистов; бартолисты; теория статутов; статуарная теория/