Supercritical fluids - theory and applications. Introduction to a special issue of the Journal of Molecular Liquids dedicated to Prof. Yu. E. Gorbaty
Professor Yuri E. Gorbatywas born 30 July 1932 in the city Grozny, in the Soviet Union. He has graduated from the Mendeleev Institute of Chemical Technology,Moscow, in 1955. He has got his Candidate of Sciences (Ph.D.) degree in 1963 for his work on “Non-equilibrium crystallization of the three-componentmelts”, and later in 1988 he was awarded a Doctor of Sciences degree for the work “The effect of temperature and pressure on the nearest ordering in liquid and supercritical water”. Between these two dates and then later in his scientific career Yuri E. Gorbaty has become one of the leading experts in the field of experimental studies of the structure and properties of fluids, especially aqueous fluids at high temperatures and pressures, by methods of IR and Raman spectroscopy and by X-ray diffraction.
Monte Carlo and molecular dynamics computer simulations using the rigid TIP4P and the flexible BJH intermolecular H2O potentials were carried out for 50 states of supercritical water characterizing a very wide range of thermodynamic conditions, 573 ≤ T ≤ 1273 K; 0.02 ≤ rho ≤ 1.67 g/cm3; 10 ≤ P ≤ 10,000 MPa. Good agreement with available experimental data of the simulated thermodynamic and structural properties give confidence to the quantitative statistical analysis of intermolecular hydrogen bonding under the conditions studied. Energetic, geometric, and angular characteristics of supercritical H-bonds and their distributions at a given temperature remain almost invariant over the entire density range studied from dilute gas-like (~ 0.03 g·cm(-3)) to highly compressed liquid-like (~ 1.5 g·cm(-3)) states. The increase of temperature from ambient to supercritical affects the characteristics of H-bonding in water much more dramatically than the changes in density along any supercritical isotherm. Compared to H-bonds in liquid water under ambient conditions, the H-bonds at 773 K are, on average, 10% weaker, 5% longer, and less linear. Both above and below the H-bonding percolation threshold the fractions of H2O molecules involved in a certain number of H-bonds in liquid and supercritical water closely follow the universal binomial distribution as a function of the average number of H-bonds per one water molecule in the system, as predicted by the independent bond theory. This universal distribution remains intact even when dynamic criteria of H-bonding lifetimes are additionally applied.
The dynamics of a two-component Davydov-Scott (DS) soliton with a small mismatch of the initial location or velocity of the high-frequency (HF) component was investigated within the framework of the Zakharov-type system of two coupled equations for the HF and low-frequency (LF) fields. In this system, the HF field is described by the linear Schrödinger equation with the potential generated by the LF component varying in time and space. The LF component in this system is described by the Korteweg-de Vries equation with a term of quadratic influence of the HF field on the LF field. The frequency of the DS soliton`s component oscillation was found analytically using the balance equation. The perturbed DS soliton was shown to be stable. The analytical results were confirmed by numerical simulations.
By using superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) magnetometry, we investigated anisotropic high-field (H less than or similar to 7T) low-temperature (10 K) magnetization response of inhomogeneous nanoisland FeNi films grown by rf sputtering deposition on Sitall (TiO2) glass substrates. In the grown FeNi films, the FeNi layer nominal thickness varied from 0.6 to 2.5 nm, across the percolation transition at the d(c) similar or equal to 1.8 nm. We discovered that, beyond conventional spin-magnetism of Fe21Ni79 permalloy, the extracted out-of-plane magnetization response of the nanoisland FeNi films is not saturated in the range of investigated magnetic fields and exhibits paramagnetic-like behavior. We found that the anomalous out-of-plane magnetization response exhibits an escalating slope with increase in the nominal film thickness from 0.6 to 1.1 nm, however, it decreases with further increase in the film thickness, and then practically vanishes on approaching the FeNi film percolation threshold. At the same time, the in-plane response demonstrates saturation behavior above 1.5-2T, competing with anomalously large diamagnetic-like response, which becomes pronounced at high magnetic fields. It is possible that the supported-metal interaction leads to the creation of a thin charge-transfer (CT) layer and a Schottky barrier at the FeNi film/Sitall (TiO2) interface. Then, in the system with nanoscale circular domains, the observed anomalous paramagnetic-like magnetization response can be associated with a large orbital moment of the localized electrons. In addition, the inhomogeneous nanoisland FeNi films can possess spontaneous ordering of toroidal moments, which can be either of orbital or spin origin. The system with toroidal inhomogeneity can lead to anomalously strong diamagnetic-like response. The observed magnetization response is determined by the interplay between the paramagnetic-and diamagnetic-like contributions.
Radiation conditions are described for various space regions, radiation-induced effects in spacecraft materials and equipment components are considered and information on theoretical, computational, and experimental methods for studying radiation effects are presented. The peculiarities of radiation effects on nanostructures and some problems related to modeling and radiation testing of such structures are considered.
This volume presents new results in the study and optimization of information transmission models in telecommunication networks using different approaches, mainly based on theiries of queueing systems and queueing networks .
The paper provides a number of proposed draft operational guidelines for technology measurement and includes a number of tentative technology definitions to be used for statistical purposes, principles for identification and classification of potentially growing technology areas, suggestions on the survey strategies and indicators. These are the key components of an internationally harmonized framework for collecting and interpreting technology data that would need to be further developed through a broader consultation process. A summary of definitions of technology already available in OECD manuals and the stocktaking results are provided in the Annex section.