The author deals with reconstruction of the probable end of the Tale of Apophis and Seqenenre with the involvement of a wide range of folklore parallels and new arguments; conclusion: this tale could not end with the liberation war of Thebes with the Hyksos or imply such a war; Seqenenre does not act as a hero of such enterprises, Apophis is recognized as the legitimate king (nsw) in Egypt, which makes mutiny or war against him unacceptable for a pious and good chartacter; The end of the tale was to be that the cunning answer of Sekhenenra (prompted by some helper. presumably inspired by Re or embodying Re's divine power) makes Apophis to reconcile and recognize the power of Re.
The paper treats the general character of ancient Egyptian apprehension and representation of the country’s history. Egyptians were greatly interested in their historical past: they created numerous literary compositions on historical topics; included historical figures into stories with fully invented novelistic plots; preserved and knew well general schemes of Egyptian history (in the form of king-lists which formed a kind of periodization and provided their readers with knowledge of names and succession of the kings) including theoretical concepts of large historical cycles. Nevertheless they have never created a real history (narratives tracing large periods of time or at least a single reign throughout all its course) because of the specific character of their sources: monuments and literary compositions dedicated to various events but irrelevant to the proper place of these events on the timescale on the one hand, and Pharaonic king-lists which gave the dynastic timeline on the whole but did not include any events on the other. Their combination was out of their possibilities or inclinations till the Hellenistic epoch. As the result Egyptian picture of the past was a chain of episodes within rather firm frames of general dynastic scheme (but the latter was also liable to modifications, transpositions and resulting variability), while these episodes themselves synthesized some elements of real history together with folklore models, belletristic inventions and vast contaminations (even more stimulated by the fact that deeds of many kings were similar to each other and they were often namesakes or similar by name).
The article deals with the description of a ancient Egyptian magic and healing statue in the Statue in Medieval Arab Anonymous Akhbār al-zamān (Pseudomasudi / Ibn Wasif Shah, 10th‑12th cent.). Though the whole story is greatly influenced by folklore motifs, it is clear that the description refers to Isis lactans, popular iconographic type of late Greco-Roman time. On one hand, this demonstrates survivability and importance of Isis’ cult in the Coptic period (the Arab tradition reflects corresponding Coptic tradition), even in a depersonalized manner (the statue is not denoted by any name). On the other hand, this statue should be considered together with many others mentioned in the text; in one words, this can be regarded not only as the hellenization of Isis’ image in the Graeco-Roman period but also as its subsequent later arabisation.
The article deals with a plot in Plutarch’s Septem Sapientium Convivium: the sage Bias answers to the Egyptian king Amasis, to whom an Ethiopian king sent “an extraordinary and awful demand… to drink up the ocean”, that he had to “tell the Ethiopian to stop the rivers which are now emptying into the ocean depths, while he himself is engaged in drinking up the ocean that now is; for this is the ocean with which the demand is concerned, and not the one which is to be”. An interpretation of the plot is founded on the seeming parallel in the Ancient Egyptian Book of Repulsing the Evil: its passage (Urk. VI. 125.21—127.2) means to contradict to Seth’s intention to make the sea water sweet (probably, with the flow of rivers) in order to drink them eventually. It seems that the Ethiopian king not only set an unfeasible task to Amasis but also actually forces on him this deed of Seth; contrary to that, Bias helps to supply this task with a reservation, at which Seth’s aim to achieve disappearing both the sea and the sweet water will not be accomplished.
A review of a recent book by the Englishe Egyptologist Alan B. Lloyd
The monograph is devoted to the study (description and analysis) of the images of women in various genres of ancient Egyptian literature, such as belle lettre proper, didactic literature (so-called Teachings), and love poetry. The research lies at the edge of two kinds of studies: gender history of Ancient Egypt which deals with the place and role of the woman in society with its mental paradigm on the one hand, and the history of ancient Egyptian literature as a keeper and reflector of social values and normative settings on the other hand.
Chronologically, the research is large-scaled: its lower limit lies within the Old Kingdom period (2794 – ca. 2200 B.C.E.), to which one group of texts actually belongs ("The Instruction of Hardedef", "The Teaching for the Vizier Kagemni") and the other ascends by origin ("The Maxims of Ptahhotep", "King Cheops and the Magicians"). The upper limit is also defined by the latest copies of the texts (which were created earlier and then copied), namely the latest copy of "The instruction of Onchsheshonqy" – the 1st century B.C.E.
Studying each genre’s narratives, we are interested in such features of women characters as: the ability to demonstrate and realize their own initiatives including sexual; the emotional and plot-based motivations of actions; ratio and correlation of male and female characters; the level of independence in women’s actions and the level of dependency on the actions and will of men; the most typical models of behavior; the content and meaning of appearance descriptions; the ability for constructing the plot (and influencing it); etc.
In the collection of articles based on reports read at the round table "Language (s) of ancient Egyptian culture: the problems of translatability", held in 2017, presents works relating to different periods of the history of Ancient Egypt. They touch upon a variety of issues related to the issues of various Egyptological disciplines: history, philology, religious studies, art history, and cultural studies. The articles are devoted to the specificity of the embodiment and dialogue of verbal and non-verbal languages of ancient Egyptian culture.