Quantum-size effects in the loss function of Pb(111) thin films: An ab initio study
A theoretical study of collective electronic excitations in free-standing Pb(111) thin films consisting of 1–5 monolayers (MLs) and a 21-ML film is presented. The calculations are carried out applying the linear response theory, with full inclusion of the electron band structure by means of a first-principles pseudopotential approach in a supercell scheme. In the case of the thickest film, we find that, due to strong bulklike interband transitions, at the Pb(111) surface there are two surface modes. For thin films, a mechanism of transformation of these modes to the symmetric and antisymmetric classic hybrid plasmons is investigated. Pronounced quantum-size effects on plasmon modes of the thinnest films are found. Strong influence of the band structure on dispersion and lifetime of such modes is demonstrated. The present results are in good agreement with available experimental data for a Pb surface and thin films.
Non-equilibrium two-temperature warm dense metals consist of the ion subsystem that is subjected to structural transitions and involved in the mass transfer, and the electron subsystem that in various pulsed experiments absorbs energy and then evolves together with ions to equilibrium. Definition of pressure in such non-equilibrium systems causes certain controversy. In this work we make an attempt to clarify this definition that is vital for proper description of the whole relaxation process. Using the density functional theory we analyze on examples of Al and Au electronic pressure components in warm dense metals. Appealing to the Fermi gas model we elucidate a way to find a number of free delocalized electrons in warm dense metals.
Recently the generation of eddy currents by interacting surface waves was observed experimentally. The phenomenon provides the possibility for manipulation of particles which are immersed in the fluid. The analysis shows that the amplitude of the established eddy currents produced by stationary surface waves does not depend on the fluid viscosity in the free surface case. The currents become parametrically larger being inversely proportional to the square root of the fluid viscosity in the case when the fluid surface is covered by an almost incompressible thin liquid (i.e. shear elasticity is zero) film formed by an insoluble agent with negligible internal viscous losses as compared to the dissipation in the fluid bulk. Here we extend the theory for a thin insoluble film with zero shear elasticity and small shear and dilational viscosities on the case of an arbitrary elastic compression modulus. We find both contributions into the Lagrangian motion of passive tracers, which are the advection by the Eulerian vertical vorticity and the Stokes drift. Whereas the Stokes drift contribution preserves its value for the free surface case outside a thin viscous sublayer, the Eulerian vertical vorticity strongly depends on the fluid viscosity at high values of the film compression modulus. The Stokes drift acquires a strong dependence on the fluid viscosity inside the viscous sublayer, however, the change is compensated by an opposite change in the Eulerian vertical vorticity. As a result, the vertical dependence of the intensity of eddy currents is given by a sum of two decaying exponents with both decrements being of the order of the wave number. The decrements are numerically different, so the Eulerian contribution becomes dominant at some depth for the surface film with any compression modulus.
Within electron density functional theory (DFT), the reflectance of radiation from shock-compressed xenon plasma is calculated. The dependence of the reflectance on the frequency of the incident radiation and on the plasma density is considered. The Fresnel formula is used. The expression for the longitudinal dielectric tensor in the long-wavelength limit is used to calculate the imaginary part of the dielectric function (DF). The real part of the DF is determined by the Kramers-Kronig transformation. The results are compared with experimental data. An approach is proposed to estimate the plasma frequency in shock-compressed xenon. © 2015, Pleiades Publishing, Inc.
The dynamics of a two-component Davydov-Scott (DS) soliton with a small mismatch of the initial location or velocity of the high-frequency (HF) component was investigated within the framework of the Zakharov-type system of two coupled equations for the HF and low-frequency (LF) fields. In this system, the HF field is described by the linear Schrödinger equation with the potential generated by the LF component varying in time and space. The LF component in this system is described by the Korteweg-de Vries equation with a term of quadratic influence of the HF field on the LF field. The frequency of the DS soliton`s component oscillation was found analytically using the balance equation. The perturbed DS soliton was shown to be stable. The analytical results were confirmed by numerical simulations.
Radiation conditions are described for various space regions, radiation-induced effects in spacecraft materials and equipment components are considered and information on theoretical, computational, and experimental methods for studying radiation effects are presented. The peculiarities of radiation effects on nanostructures and some problems related to modeling and radiation testing of such structures are considered.
This volume presents new results in the study and optimization of information transmission models in telecommunication networks using different approaches, mainly based on theiries of queueing systems and queueing networks .
The paper provides a number of proposed draft operational guidelines for technology measurement and includes a number of tentative technology definitions to be used for statistical purposes, principles for identification and classification of potentially growing technology areas, suggestions on the survey strategies and indicators. These are the key components of an internationally harmonized framework for collecting and interpreting technology data that would need to be further developed through a broader consultation process. A summary of definitions of technology already available in OECD manuals and the stocktaking results are provided in the Annex section.