Способы идентификации приоритетных и конкурентоспособных областей прикладной медицинской науки
Identification of the priorities and competitive areas of applied medical science is necessary for effective public funding of scientific research. The process of such identification should include the following steps: 1. Cost of illness analysis; 2. Search of evidence gaps; 3. Analysis of landscape of national health economic studies. Methods to solve these problems are discussed in details in the article.
The fourth and conclusive topic of the lecture course «Firm-level Empirical Surveys: Tools and Practice» is presented in this issue. The topic «Empirical studies of Russian enterprises behavior: subject-matters and methods» includes two lectures and describes emergence and development of applied empirical studies of Russian enterprises behavior in 1990-2000th and ways of improvement methodology for collecting and analyzing data. Examples of implemented research project illustrating the history of development firm-level surveys are considered. In conclusion of the course we return to discussion of the key issue of quality of empirical information and means of its improvement. Besides, special recommendation for organization of seminars and check of students' learning are presented.
The publication was prepared in the scope of the European Union’s Seventh Framework Programme for Research, Technological Development and Demonstration Activities “Advancement of the Bilateral Partnership in Scientific Research and Innovation with the Russian Federation”. The paper presents an analysis of best practices in STI priority setting in the EU member states (UK, Germany, and Finland) and in the Russian Federation; compares priority systems adopted by various European countries; and identifies prospective subject areas for further development of international cooperation.
The materials included in the publication will help public authorities, companies, R&D organisations, universities, technology platforms, innovative territorial clusters, and other organisations to identify priority development areas, subject fields, and critical technologies.
Information and communication technologies (ICT) radically transform many areas of human activity thus attracting great attention of researchers. However, the dynamics of ICT development depends on the global challenges and broader trends that define long-term S&T priorities. What factors that will influence the future of the ICT industry? What technological solutions will determine its characteristics in the next 15–20 years? These and similar questions were considered by the HSE ISSEK specialists in co-operation with the colleagues from other research entities while investigating trends in S&T at the global and national levels. The experts have analyzed socio-economic and S&T challenges affecting the ICT sector, advanced R&D fields, markets for innovative products and services, estimated the «windows of opportunities» for Russia. As a result, the strategic directions of blueprint research which ensure the basis for the creation of innovative products and new markets for the medium- and long-term (beyond 2020) perspective. Foresight results have been validated by the representatives of leading companies, research centers, universities and international organizations. Among the solutions expected in the period up to 2030 are the prototypes of systems implementing the new computing principles and multi-language software for extraction and formalization of knowledge, technologies dealing with «big data», new analytical tools (personal analytic systems, means of the real time data processing, mobile analytics, etc.). Markets for novel technology solutions are expected to be rapidly growing in healthcare, energy, engineering and transport, as well as in personal usage of ICT products and services. The study allows to conclude that in the medium to long term, the ICT sector will retain a high growth dynamic and will have transformative impact on virtually all areas of human life. The life cycle of technologies, related products and services will shorten. In this context, R&D development plays a crucial role for keeping up with competitors. Russian science has a certain potential in much of the considered areas, although one can hardly perceive Russia as gaining global leadership. A breakthrough level of research is observed, for example, in telecommunication technologies (communication, networking and content distribution).
We address the external effects on public sector efficiency measures acquired using Data Envelopment Analysis. We use the health care system in Russian regions in 2011 to evaluate modern approaches to accounting for external effects. We propose a promising method of correcting DEA efficiency measures. Despite the multiple advantages DEA offers, the usage of this approach carries with it a number of methodological difficulties. Accounting for multiple factors of efficiency calls for more complex methods, among which the most promising are DMU clustering and calculating local production possibility frontiers. Using regression models for estimate correction requires further study due to possible systematic errors during estimation. A mixture of data correction and DMU clustering together with multi-stage DEA seems most promising at the moment. Analyzing several stages of transforming society’s resources into social welfare will allow for picking out the weak points in a state agency’s work.