Отходники в местном сообществе: восприятие другими и самоощущение
The article deals with the topic of the status of domestic temporary labour migrants, or otkhodniks, in their home local community. Perception of otkhodniks by others and their self-perception are discussed. The results are based on 349 in-depth interviews with otkhodniks and other local residents. On the base of interviews we can conclude that differences in the view of life between otkhodniks and others have an impact on local solidarity.
The article deals with investigation of how economic behavior of the contemporary Russian otkhodnik (domestic temporary labor migrant) impacts his social status. The ideas of human capital theory are used. The author considers otkhodniks' knowledge and skills to determine the level of income according to their uniqueness, and defines them as "professional competence specificity". Otkhodniks' abilities, in their turn, should be considered from the perspective of readiness to endure harsh living and working conditions at the job site; the author defines them as "adaptability". Professional competence specificity and adaptability become the parameters for otkhodniks' economic behavior typology. The combination of "high" and "low" values of the parameters allows determining four socioeconomic types of otkhodniks: "maximalists", "fastidious", "drudges", and "standing about". "Maximalists" have unique skills, work and live in harsh conditions, earn big money and have a high status in their local community. They are carpenters who erect houses in the suburbs of major cities, and "rotation workers" in the extractive industries who work outdoors. This type prevails in the forest regions of the European part of Russia. "Fastidious" otkhodniks have unique skills and avoid working and living in harsh conditions; by their material situation they are similar to the local residents successfully employed in their hometown or village. They are communications technicians and otkhodniks who make repairs and renovate premises for wealthy clients. These otkhodniks are least of all integrated in the local social structure. "Drudges" do not have unique skills and endure harsh working and living conditions. They are respected by the local community; their earnings allow them to have a "decent" lifestyle, comparable with the lifestyle of locals successfully employed at the place of residence. They are builders, truckers, loggers, factory workers and "rotation workers" in the extractive industries who work indoors. "Standing about" otkhodniks do not have unique skills and avoid working and living in harsh conditions. They offer the employer only their presence and perform the simplest jobs. These are otkhodniks occupied in security, trade, catering and domestic services. Their earnings are lower than the amounts that people working locally receive. Their status in the local community is not high. This type is more frequent in the agricultural regions of the European part of Russia.
Photography as conversation (by field study in Sochi, 2010-2014)
The field study realized in Adler region of Sochi during 2010-2014 is the ground of the paper. The main method applied is photo documentary, primarily researchers have done photos, and Photo Voices have been applied, too. Besides, the process of photography appeared to be the way of interaction with local inhabitants involving them in a dialogue with us. The aim was to get their commentaries, to reveal shared by them meanings of landscape and some objects in it. Thus we conducted the conversation about photo in the process of taking pictures. Our respondents influenced on the interpretation of photo images. In some cases photos presented such objects and elements of environments which respondent considered to be (or prefer to do) hidden, invisible.
The authors discuss a number of questions: how photo images may be used to analyze social changes, transformation of social structure, institualization of social practices, adjustment of novelty or resistance to changes. We consider some cases, such as ‘fences’, ‘streets’ building structure’, and ‘resort services’.
Some working materials are available: http://soc.hse.ru/gsoc/olimpobjects/.
Plusnin Juri M.
A new “modus vivendi” against the megapolis
The article describes a population’s activity associated with an independentand on its own responsibility realization of its own local issue-related initiatives.Th is is characterized as a form of citizens’ participation at the local level,as a social institute and as a sphere of population’s interest realization. Also thearticle describes the involvement of the Russian people’s in this form of citizens’participation as in their daily self-organization and charity activities according totheir place of residence, and evaluates the charity resources of the housing selforganizationactivists.
This article is talking about state management and cultural policy, their nature and content in term of the new tendency - development of postindustrial society. It mentioned here, that at the moment cultural policy is the base of regional political activity and that regions can get strong competitive advantage if they are able to implement cultural policy successfully. All these trends can produce elements of new economic development.