Российские НИОКР – глобальные и региональные аспекты
The article is devoted to interconnection between Russia’s place in the global economic space and internal processes at the regions for creation and implementation of new products. Corruption impact on firm’s capacity to transform R&D into market successful goods is discussed. Its impact on business access to credits and loans is considered. Russia's place in the global system of patent registration is compared with the internal patent activity. For this purpose statistics on domestic patent applications was disaggregated on federal districts statistics. Federal districts is compared on patent activity. The effectiveness of human capital use is interpreted as one of the causes of different patent activity. The volume of shipped innovation products per unit of human capital is chosen as the criterion of effectiveness of human capital use. Furthermore, the interrelation between patent activity and industrial facilities and business incubators (technoparks) at Federal district is discussed. The possibility to use the world positive experience of business-incubators for innovation activity development in Russian economy is analyzed.
The article deals with the statistical analysis of results of the scientific and technical activity, based on the data of patent statistics. This analysis allows to judge tendencies and level national technological development, structure, directions and intensity of commercialization of knowledge. In article the detailed analysis of patent activity which are carried out by the organizations of a scientific and technical complex is resulted.
The increase of interaction and cooperation between countries nowadays rouses up a question of improving national competitiveness in a global world. The expansion of market boarders, high mobility of resources and their integration lead to rapid development, implementation of new technologies occurring everywhere, but these also result in severe competition. Countries that were not ready for opening their markets to foreign investors, that did not have any competitive industry or the industry protected by the government or effective institutions suffered from the globalization most of all. Developed countries managed to take advantage of opening the markets of the developing world using their resources at low cost. Indexes of globalization and global competitiveness illustrate how integration to the world market affected the main components of national competitiveness and what features of the countries lead to more or less favourable results in a globalised world. The example of India proves that globalization intensifies changes in the economies of developing countries but not all o these changes result in the increase of national competitiveness.
This data book presents the results of statistical surveys characterising innovation processes in the Russian economy. The aggregates showing the level of development of technological and non-technological innovation were produced in accordance with modern international standards of the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) and Eurostat and are presented in dynamics. The publication contains statistical data reflecting the innovation activity in industry, services and construction. Resource provision and innovation output, cooperation ties, economic, industrial and other factors hampering innovation are closely reviewed. A specific chapter deals with ecological innovation. Special sections are devoted to the characteristics of innovation activity in the regions of the Russian Federation and international comparisons covering a wide range of indicators. The data book includes information of the Federal State Statistics Service, OECD, European Commission, Eurostat, national statistical agencies of foreign countries, and results of methodological and analytical studies conducted at HSE Institute for Statistical Studies and Economics of Knowledge
Nowadays there is a relatively small amount of publications devoted to business accelerators. Moreover, there is no standard definition of such programs. The research finds a distinctive similarity between business accelerators and third generation of business incubators thus proposing the specified definition of business accelerators and validating it by means of sociological survey conducted among self-proclaimed business accelerators
The paper examines the structure, governance, and balance sheets of state-controlled banks in Russia, which accounted for over 55 percent of the total assets in the country's banking system in early 2012. The author offers a credible estimate of the size of the country's state banking sector by including banks that are indirectly owned by public organizations. Contrary to some predictions based on the theoretical literature on economic transition, he explains the relatively high profitability and efficiency of Russian state-controlled banks by pointing to their competitive position in such functions as acquisition and disposal of assets on behalf of the government. Also suggested in the paper is a different way of looking at market concentration in Russia (by consolidating the market shares of core state-controlled banks), which produces a picture of a more concentrated market than officially reported. Lastly, one of the author's interesting conclusions is that China provides a better benchmark than the formerly centrally planned economies of Central and Eastern Europe by which to assess the viability of state ownership of banks in Russia and to evaluate the country's banking sector.
The paper examines the principles for the supervision of financial conglomerates proposed by BCBS in the consultative document published in December 2011. Moreover, the article proposes a number of suggestions worked out by the authors within the HSE research team.