Способы получения статистических данных об инновациях и их распространении
The article is devoted to analysis and generalization of statistical practices of collecting information on innovation. The paper discusses existing approaches to formation of information base for the study of innovation activity and the extent of innovation in different segments of the society. The authors generalize the experience of applying the analysis of the investigated subject areas indexes of innovation activity developed by the international organizations, to explore innovative processes at the macro level and to make international comparisons. Considerable attention is paid to the statistical information provided by Rosstat, which correspond to the methodological recommendations of the Organization for economic cooperation and development (OECD) and provide the opportunity to study innovative activity in Russia on a wide range of indicators. Statistics of innovations in Russia is conducted by Rosstat since 1994 and greatly appreciate the processes of innovation at the macro - and meso-levels. The data of official statistical reporting to the Federal state statistics service, give the opportunity to explore innovative development in the regions of Russia, economic activities, forms of ownership, size groups of enterprises, ministries and departments. The rapid development of scientific-technical progress (STP), the development of information and communication technologies has a significant impact on the main characteristics of the quality of life of people. However, despite the efforts for modernization of Rosstat activities and collect information about the innovation, to the present time it is difficult to assess the prevalence of innovations, their use in various population groups, as well as the needs of the population in the innovative products and services. Developments in society changes require careful study and interpretation that it is difficult using the official statistical data of Rosstat. Realizing new challenges and with the aim of providing researchers and individuals to make managerial decisions, necessary information, Rosstat conducted a sample survey, the scope of which is steadily expanding, which allows to obtain information about the diffusion of innovation in society and their impact on people's daily lives. The paper presents a review of the programmes of sample surveys and provides results to obtain some estimates of the impact of innovations on the level of people's lives. In this case the conclusion should expand the range of programs and sample surveys in order to be able to assess the needs of different socio-demographic groups in innovations, innovative products and services in different spheres of life. Also proves the thesis that only the use of sources of information allows to obtain complete and accurate idea about the diffusion of innovation in society, the need for access to innovation use. Data monitoring public opinion in this case have a certain predictive ability in the context of prospects of development of innovative activity and market innovation.