Кластеры в туризме: особенности классификации, процесс формирования и методы оценки
The present investigation considers phenomenon of tourism cluster as a theoretical model of region tourism complex administration. Basing on authors’ approach to theoretical analysis, deep investigation of the concept “tourism cluster” was realized. Following the results of the analysis mentioned, we described a number of theoretical approaches to the category of tourism cluster. All the approaches mentioned were presented in two different ways: static and dynamic ones. The dynamic model provided a general view on historical development of the category “tourism cluster” in the scope of economic theory.
Basing on complex analysis results, we created our own “system and agglomeration” approach to the concept of “tourism cluster”. The approach mentioned was structured as follows: authors’ interpretation of the category “tourism cluster”, feature-based table, tourism cluster graphical model, authors’ methodology of tourism cluster identification and complex analysis of this type system.
New methodology was tested on the case of Perm krai.
The set of theoretical and practical innovations suggested in the present research is considered as universal one and it could be used in the practice of other regions administration. The present monograph could be recommended to the specialists working in the sphere of public administration ( specially to those of them who is responsible for tourism policy); to students of university programs related with tourism , economics, public administration and to all of those who are interested in the sphere of special development and tourism development in the Russian Federation.
Smoking is a problem, bringing signifi cant social and economic costs to Russiansociety. However, ratifi cation of the World health organization Framework conventionon tobacco control makes it possible to improve Russian legislation accordingto the international standards. So, I describe some measures that should be taken bythe Russian authorities in the nearest future, and I examine their effi ciency. By studyingthe international evidence I analyze the impact of the smoke-free areas, advertisementand sponsorship bans, tax increases, etc. on the prevalence of smoking, cigaretteconsumption and some other indicators. I also investigate the obstacles confrontingthe Russian authorities when they introduce new policy measures and the public attitudetowards these measures. I conclude that there is a number of easy-to-implementanti-smoking activities that need no fi nancial resources but only a political will.
One of the most important indicators of company's success is the increase of its value. The article investigates traditional methods of company's value assessment and the evidence that the application of these methods is incorrect in the new stage of economy. So it is necessary to create a new method of valuation based on the new main sources of company's success that is its intellectual capital.