‘The Sea on One Side, Trouble on the Other’: Russian Marine Resource Use before Peter the Great
The article explores the connection between Russia and the marine environment during the seventeenth century prior to the modernizing reforms of Peter the Great. Drawing from archival sources, it traces the links binding local and regional actors (e.g. state officials, local fishermen, monastic authorities, etc.) to an array of maritime resources and actors. Emphasis is placed on analysing the routine practices associated with natural resource use evident at this time in order to reveal a relatively complex management system underpinning Russia's exploitation of the maritime environment.
This chapter describes the crucial role that the circulation of knowledge between the Nordic countries and Russia has played in understanding spatial and temporal distribution patterns for valuable fish resources in the Barents Sea. It shows the importance of the Nordiccountries to the establishment of marine and fisheries studies, especially Norway – with its pioneering Bergen School, which led to the formation of modern meteorology and oceanography. This story covers a long period, from the formation of the International Council for the Exploration of the Sea (ICES) on the eve of the 20th century to the establishment of the Joint Norwegian-Russian Fisheries Commission in 1976. This chapter is based on documents from Russian and Scandinavian archives and on sources published in Russian that are little known internationally.
This is the most comprehensive multivolume history of the North Atlantic fisheries This publication is a result of long term project of the North Atlantic fisheries historyThe fisheries have had a profound influence on the development of human societies in the North Atlantic region. Assuming countless forms over the ages, fishing activity has ranged across the vast expanse of an ocean that comprises a myriad of complex, dynamic and fragile ecosystems. In these diverse waters, an array of species has sustained the subsistence fishing of indigenous populations, the labour-intensive fisheries of medieval and early modern societies, and the highly capitalised industries of the contemporary world. Amidst this diversity, several common themes can be discerned. The fisheries have contributed significantly to human dietary requirements, generated income for those engaged in the catching, processing and marketing of fish products, and encouraged fishers – and their techniques, beliefs and cultures – to migrate to new lands in search of better catches and markets. Written by experts in the field, this book explores such themes to provide a pioneering region-wide appraisal of the scale, character and significance of the North Atlantic fisheries from the 1850s to the early twenty-first century.
This is a collection of essays on the semiotics of history, a product of the 30 years collaboration of the two co-authors. All the articles are devoted to the history of the Russian culture, treating it not as an isolated phenomenon, but as an integral part of the world culture. Semiotic analysis of various fonts allows to define both universal and pecular characteristics in the history of Rusian culture.
The book includes different documents on the history of Novgorod in the age of Peter the Great taken from the Historical Archive of Saint-Petersburg Institute of History of the Russian Academy of Sciences.
The paper is the first to the knowledge of the authors to apply copula models to reconstructing joint distribution of time charter rates for dry bulk ship. Based on the Clarksons dataset for the last 20 years it is claimed that Gumbel copula is enough to perform the mentioned objective. To arrive at the conclusion the homogenous dataset in terms of copula structural shifts’ absence is used; a system of criteria for copula selection based on goodness-of-forecast criteria is implemented. The evidence suggests dry bulk time charter rates weekly returns exhibit symmetric distribution.
As an auxiliary output stands for the result of copula fit accounting for time dynamics and not. For the purpose of conservative analysis (i.e. risk-management) approach disregarding time-dynamics should be preferred as yielding the least number of value-at-risk breaches. From the risk budgeting perspective non-conservative approach (accounting for time dynamics) might be preferred as reflecting the rapidly changing value-at-risk.
This chapter is devoted to the history of fisheries in the Norwegian and Russian waters of the Barents Sea. Processes of industrialization of fisheries since 1850 are described. Environmental degradation of fisheries and history of its internationa management is briefly described.
The europeanization of Russia under Peter I had a conspicuously carnival form. Characteristically, the reforms of Peter I, which were intended to turn Russia into a European country, in many cases began with carnival sport. Carnavalization, re-naming—all this manifested a general cultural program, which reveals the artificial character of the modernization of Russia. Russian official life turned out to be extremely carnivalesque. Carnival became an element of Russian court life; participation in carnivals was obligatory. Together with new clothing, new language and new habits, new aristoricratic titles were adopted, such as count or baron. In the context of carnival ceremonies such titles had an ambiguous character. The author attempts to demonstrate that the title of count could be understood as buffonesque in the Petrine epoch.