Locus Studii: Португальский университет и городское пространство (кон. XIII – сер. XV вв.)
The theme of this article is the place of the university in the medieval urban space, in particular the case of the Portuguese studium generale, that was founded in Lisbon in 1288/1290 and then leaved it for Coimbra. Owing to the further numerous removals between those cities in the 14th century and the gaps of continuity provoked by this situation it’s possible to observe some unique aspects of the connection between conceptions of locus studii, their rhetoric and their realization. General case is observed in the context of common law texts and experience of other studia generalia. We can see two general concepts: the first – of the special academic district and the second which regards the whole city as common space of the university’s activities and privileges. Both of them were applied to the corporate law of so called “model” universities (e.g. Paris) and used the texts of jurist from Bologna in 13th – 15th centuries. As the result of the investigation we can observe how the privileged district conception became dominating in the sources of the corporate law of the Portuguese university. But in the first half of the 14th century its realization met various difficulties: ‘town and gown’ conflicts and clashes with other privileged social groups (court circle, officials), lack of consistent royal support. Only after the removal to Lisbon in 1377 academic corporation succeeded in fulfilling its program which proposed to create (literally – to re-create) the privileged district. So owing to the grow of the centralized royal jurisdiction that «washed out» and subjugated local, custom and municipal law, the university integrated to the legal and consequently topographic space of Lisbon – and to incarnate its old rhetoric “dreams”.