Современные методы оценки международной торговли услугами
In the article the authors describe the main trends in international trade in services , compare different approaches to the assessment of international services trades through the balance of payments and through the evaluation of the statistics in terms of value added. The growing fragmentation of production processes across countries carries important consequences for the world trade and creates new opportunities for the global growth. Under the new conditions of global value chains acceleration the trade liberalization and the business investment openness in countries are important conditions for sustainable economic growth and protectionism costs have become much more significant than usually perceived. The traditional instruments of trade policy in the form of tariffs do not apply to the quantitative analysis of services trade, taking into account the specific characteristics of services tradability. Trade in services tends to be restricted mainly through market access barriers and through treatment of foreign providers that is less favorable than that of national ones. The article reviews the evolution of analysis methods for barriers to trade in services and classifies the approaches to quantify the restrictions in services trade. There is also a review of the measures in services trade based on notifications of countries measures under the World Trade Organization. Current trends in international trade are associated with a slowdown of the material production and the concurrent development and growth of the international trade in services. The international trade in services has become over the last decades not only one of the most dynamic sectors of the world economy, but also an important component of national economies, and requires an adequate level of state regulation. The development of the service sector requires a comprehensive assessment of trade barriers and regulatory measures. The provisions of the General Agreement on Trade in Services is far behind the practice of measures affecting international trade in services.
This study identifies how country differences on a key cultural dimension—egalitarianism— influence the direction of different types of international investment flows. A society's cultural orientation toward egalitarianism is manifested by intolerance for abuses of market and political power and a desire for protecting the weak and less powerful actors. We show egalitarianism to be based on exogenous factors including social fractionalization, dominant religion circa 1900, and war experience from the 19th century era of state formation. Controlling for a large set of competing explanations, we find a robust influence of egalitarianism distance on cross-national investment flows of bond and equity issuances, syndicated loans, and mergers and acquisitions. An informal cultural institution largely determined a century or more ago, egalitarianism exercises its effect on international investment via an associated set of consistent contemporary policy choices. But even after controlling for these associated policy choices, egalitarianism continues to exercise a direct effect on cross-border investment flows, likely through its direct influence on managers’ daily business conduct.
Corpus linguistics can be broadly defined in terms of two partially overlapping research dimensions . On the one hand, corpus linguistics is knowledge of how to compile and annotate linguistic corpora. On the other hand, corpus linguistics is a family of qualitative and quantitative methods of language study based on corpus data. The book presents the first steps taken by Russian corpus linguistics toward the development of language corpora and corpus-based resources as well as their use in grammatical and lexical analysis.
The first part of the book focuses on the annotation of Russian texts at several levels: lemmas, part of speech and inflectional forms, word formation, lexical-semantic classes, syntactic dependencies, semantic roles, frames, and lexical constructions. We discuss various theoretical principles and practical considerations motivating the corpus markup design, provide details on the creation of lexical resources (electronic dictionaries and databases) and text processing software, and consider complicated cases that present challenges for the annotation of corpora both manually and automatically. In most cases we describe the annotation of the Russian National Corpus (RNC, ruscorpora.ru) and its affiliate project FrameBank (framebank.ru).
Frequency data depend not only on the representativeness and balance of texts in a corpus, but also on the rules and tools used for annotation. The book addresses the development of evaluation standards for Russian NLP resources, namely, morphological taggers and dependency parsers. In addition, the book presents several experiments on automatic annotation and disambiguation: lemmatization of word forms not in the dic- tionary; word sense disambiguation based on vectors formed by lexical, semantic and grammatical cues of context; and semantic role labeling.
The final chapters of the first part of the book outline two types of frequency dictionaries based on the RNC data: a general-purpose frequency dictionary and a lexico-grammatical one.
The second part of the book presents an analysis of corpus data and includes a number of case studies of Russian grammar and lexical-grammatical interaction using quantitative methods. The key concept underlying our analysis is the behavioral profile (Hanks 1996; Divjak, Gries 2006), which is the frequency distribution of variable elements in a linguistic unit as attested in a corpus. This covers grammatical profiles (the frequency distribution of inflected forms of a word), constructional profiles (the frequency distri- bution of argument or any other constructions attested for a key predicate), lexical and semantic profiles (the frequency distribution of words and lexical-semantic classes in construction slots or, more generally, in the context of a word), and radial category profiles (the frequency distribution of word senses and word uses across the radial category network of a polysemous unit). We use grammatical, constructional, semantic, and radial category profiling to study tense, aspect and mood specialization of Russian verb forms; to identify singular-oriented and plural-oriented nouns; to investigate factors for prefix choice and prefix variation in natural perfectives (chistovidovye perfectivy); to analyze constraints on the filling of slots in a construction and how this affects the meaning of the construction, taking as an example the Genitive construction of shape and the spatial construction with the preposition poverkh ‘up and over’.
The quantitative corpus-based techniques used for the analysis vary from simple descriptive statistics (e. g., absolute frequencies, percentages, measures of the central ten- dency and outliers) to exact Fisher test and logistic regression. We claim that the vector modeling approaches to quantitative grammatical studies in theoretical linguistics are no less effective than in computational linguistics, where they have become a standard tool.
Russian multinational enterprises (MNE) expanded widely in the late 1990s through the summer of 2008 at the onset of the global financial crisis of 2008. The emerging market MNEs have now become a subject of intensive study with a particular focus on the actions and behaviors of firms from Brazil, Russia, India, China, and South Africa (BRICS). This paper attempts to flesh out the reputational and corporate social responsibility (CSR) aspects of this internationalization process. The paper finds that in select cases the reputation of a Russia MNE does play a role in their activities and that these emergent firms recognize host country stakeholders as an audience for concern when conducting OFDI.
This article assesses the level of openness of Russian economy. It is shown that the open-ness indicators used in the Concept of Long-term Social and Economic Development of the Russian Federation differ from those employed by international organisations. The present research analyses both the intensity of Russian trade in terms of its gross domestic product and the relative strength of import penetration in Russia. Methodological differences determine the differences in the analysis results.
Drawing on the neo-institutional approach in organizational theory and global strategy, we advance a theory on the impact that differences in cultural egalitarianism have on multinational firms’ decision of where to engage in foreign direct investment (FDI) across the globe. Egalitarianism expresses a society’s cultural orientation with respect to intolerance for abuses of market and political power; it shapes the ways in which firms holding power interact with different stakeholders. After presenting a series of case illustrations, we find a strong negative impact of egalitarianism distance on FDI flows in a broad sample of nations and for different entry modes. Our results are robust to a broad set of competing accounts, including effects from other cultural dimensions, major features of the legal and regulatory regimes, other features of the institutional system, and economic development. These results hold while controlling for origin and host country factors through a fixed-effects specification as well as by using instruments for egalitarianism. We also find that other cultural influences are important as well. Differences in cultural harmony are actually positively associated with increased FDI flows, likely because multinational firms seek countries with lower societal support for entrepreneurship. FDI further tends to flow from high embeddedness to low embeddedness countries, and we link this in part to international regulatory arbitrage on environmental protection regimes.
Observed and unobserved regional determinants of FDI inflows: micro level analysis of the food industry firms in Russia The development of Russian food industry is strategically important. Theoretically, the foreign capital inflow will help to renovate, modernize it and increase the productivity. But is it also interesting for foreign investors? What do foreign companies take into account when they invest in Russian food industry enterprises? Could it be special aspects of regional development (observed or unobserved) or only firm level data matters? Does the institutional environment in Russian regions significantly stimulate the inflow of foreign direct investment in Russian food industry enterprises or is the investor interested only in the size of a market? Two samples for 2009 and 2012 years of correspondingly about 5000 and about 7000 food industry companies of different subindustries from different Russian regions are analyzed to give the answer to these questions. The main idea of this investigation is to determine significant regional factors which effect the distribution of the FDI or to show that these items are not important for foreign investors. Russia has more than 80 regions and all of them are highly heterogeneous in terms of climate, geographical characteristics, level of economic and institutional development, industrial specialization, etc. Moreover, enterprises of different industries and subindustrues are different. In this research we take into account these facts investigating a hierarchical structure of the FDI distribution levels. This research consists of several parts: the theoretical part with hypotheses and the overview of the background and the empirical part with testing whether different regional characteristics like the infrastructure, taxation and the regulations in the region and in the neighboring ones play an important role. Spatial effects of these factors and of the economic development are also of our interest. The estimation of a multilevel binary model with spatial effects of analyzed factors gives the idea for the possible solution on the problem discovered above. The comparison of the results for two samples for different years and the investigation of dynamics also are taken into consideration.
How are professors paid? Can the "best and brightest" be attracted to the academic profession? With universities facing international competition, which countries compensate their academics best, and which ones lag behind? Paying the Professoriate examines these questions and provides key insights and recommendations into the current state of the academic profession worldwide. Paying the Professoriate is the first comparative analysis of global faculty salaries, remuneration, and terms of employment. Offering an in-depth international comparison of academic salaries in twenty-eight countries across public, private, research, and non-research universities, chapter authors shed light on the conditions and expectations that shape the modern academic profession. The top researchers on the academic profession worldwide analyze common themes, trends, and the impact of these matters on academic quality and research productivity. In a world where higher education capacity is a key driver of national innovation and prosperity, and nations seek to fast-track their economic growth through expansion of higher education systems, policy makers and administrators increasingly seek answers about what actions they should be taking. Paying the Professoriate provides a much needed resource, illuminating the key issues and offering recommendations
This study analyzes the effects of reducing trade barriers in the context of the objectives of competition policy. Separate chapters are devoted to the assessment of the height of Russian trade barriers, the analysis of the impact of international trade on domestic prices and concentration of production.