Sanctions and the Future of EU-Russian economic relations
The essay examines the qualitative changes in EU–Russian relations which resulted from the 2014 sanctions. Thematic, structural and institutional aspects of the issue are analysed through the ‘level of analysis’ approach. Thematically, policy-specific and implementation measures reinforced an EU–Russian ‘divorce’ both in energy and trade. Structurally, the scope of EU–Russian dialogue narrowed in favour of relations between Moscow and member states, and in multilateral fora; this dialogue also became dependent on Russia–US relations. Institutionally sanctions have led to the growing poverty of transgovernmental and transnational relations. As a result, achievements of previous years have been derailed, and reversal of the negative trends will prove difficult.
The aim of this paper is to analyze the current state of the oil and gas industry of Russia in the conditions of falling oil prices and sanctions policy as well as the forecast of the further development of the industry and search for the ways out. The research methodology is based on a systematic approach to assessing the state of the oil and gas industry of Russia. It uses a set of scientific and special methods of investigation including the abstract-logical method, balancing method, economics and statistics and comparative analysis, synthesis method and others. The article demonstrates that the sanctions imposed on Russian companies as well as unprecedentedly low oil prices in the short term did not have a major impact on the production stability of the Russian oil and gas sector. The reason is that Russia has a huge resource potential and Russian oil projects are profitableeven at low oil prices. However, in the long term, these factors can have a negative impact on the industry, which is due primarily to the shortage of modern equipment and technologies for the implementation of promising projects in the Arctic shelf, as well as on deposits with difficult development conditions. The sanctions policy is not favourable for foreign companies because the long-term interests of our companies coincide with the interests of foreign business partners. The international coordination of efforts for solving many problems is needed, because of decreasing resources and infavourable oil production settings. The article shows that a major investment in the development of modern domestic equipment and technologies are required in the current situation; it is advisable to develop the residual reserves and reserves difficult to recover in the aged areas along with the implementation of large-scale projects for the production of hydrocarbons in new areas.
The article introduces a special issue on studying EU-Russian relations. It overviews Russian- and English-language academic research to identify whether there is sufficient dialogue on issues studied, theories applied and categories used for a transnational epistemic community to emerge. This latter would allow the academic world to better contribute to the resolution of the present crisis in EU-Russian relations. Although an overlap is identified in issues, theories and categories the article exposes multiple differences in how they are approached in English- and Russian-language academic writings. These findings challenge the existence of a transnational epistemic community in EU-Russian relations. The article concludes by discussing steps to make for this community to develop, and introduces contributions to the special issue.
We address the external effects on public sector efficiency measures acquired using Data Envelopment Analysis. We use the health care system in Russian regions in 2011 to evaluate modern approaches to accounting for external effects. We propose a promising method of correcting DEA efficiency measures. Despite the multiple advantages DEA offers, the usage of this approach carries with it a number of methodological difficulties. Accounting for multiple factors of efficiency calls for more complex methods, among which the most promising are DMU clustering and calculating local production possibility frontiers. Using regression models for estimate correction requires further study due to possible systematic errors during estimation. A mixture of data correction and DMU clustering together with multi-stage DEA seems most promising at the moment. Analyzing several stages of transforming society’s resources into social welfare will allow for picking out the weak points in a state agency’s work.
The chapter constructs a new approach to legal approximation in EU-Russian energy relations
The article examines partnerships for modernisation between Russia, on the one hand, and the EU as well as 23 out of its 28 member states, on the other hand. In doing that it first identifies the difference between the Russian economic interpretation of modernisation and the EU's one based on political values. The article then demonstrates the ambiguity rather than singularity of the position that EU member states promote in their modernisation partnerships with Russia. To illustrate the difference among EU member states’ the article designs a scale of Russia’s sensitivity to various political aspects of modernization and then posits member states on this scale on the basis of their national partnerships for modernisation with Russia. As a result, a new classification of EU member states emerges; it is based on the extent, to which they are ready to defend the political definition of modernisation (and ultimately the EU's normative power) in their relations with Russia.