О целевой структуре капитала страховых компаний
This article is devoted to the analysis of the existence of target capital structure of insurance companies and empirical testing of wide known capital structure theories for Russian insurance companies. Trade-of and “pecking order” theories were consider and the model that reflects the impact on the capital structure indicators various characteristics of firms was build. Traditional for insurance markets coefficients: net premium / capital ratio and liabilities / active ratio were consider as capital structure indicators. It was showed that trade-of theory is more adequate for Russian insurance market. It was discovered the existence of target capital structure. Such indicators as firm size, the share of premiums transferred to reinsurance, return on assets, return on capital has significant impact on the capital structure. The opportunity to grow, which was estimated as growth in premiums, and the breadth of the range didn’t has significant impact.
Current article is dedicated to the relationship between effectiveness of usage of intellectual capital and capital structure of firms in Russia in 2005-2007. Current research showed that effectiveness of usage of intellectual capital of firms has a positive influence over the level of financial leverage. The result of the research has showed that the more effective usage of intellectual capital makes a company more attractive for the credit organizations and opens more sources to obtain financing. There were also revealed some specific features of relationship between the effectiveness of utilization of intellectual capital and corporate financial decisions in Russia. The result is consistent with the results from the similar researches from the developed markets.
The paper explores theoretical approaches to the company IPO underpricing and analyzes capital structure impact on the underpricing of the Russian issuers.
This study investigates the puzzle of zero-debt in emerging markets using a sample of firms from Eastern Europe during 2000-2013. The results of this paper are in line with the previous research of firms from developed markets. Firms that are financially constrained do not use debt as a result of credit rationing while financially unconstrained firms intentionally eschew debt to maintain financial flexibility and avoid underinvestment incentives. Furthermore, this study provides new insights into unconstrained firms’ performance during different economic situations. Firms that strategically avoid debt show better financial results than levered firms.
Despite a clear distinction in law between equity and debt, the results of such a categorization can be misleading. The growth of financial innovation in recent decades necessitates the allocation of control and cash-flow rights in a way that diverges from the classic understanding. Some of the financial instruments issued by companies, so-called hybrid instruments, fall into a grey area between debt and equity, forcing regulators to look beyond the legal form of an instrument to its practical substance. This innovative study, by emphasizing the agency relations and the property law claims embedded in the use of such unconventional instruments, analyses and discusses the governance regulation of hybrids in a way that is primarily functional, departing from more common approaches that focus on tax advantages and internal corporate control. The author assesses the role of hybrid instruments in the modern company, unveiling the costs and benefits of issuing these securities, recognizing and categorizing the different problem fields in which hybrids play an important role, and identifying legal and contracting solutions to governance and finance problems. The full-scale analysis compares the UK law dealing with hybrid instruments with the corresponding law of the most relevant US jurisdictions in relation to company law. The following issues, among many others, are raised:
– decisions under uncertainty when the risks of opportunism of the parties is very high;
− contract incompleteness and ex post conflicts;
− protection of convertible bondholders in mergers and acquisitions and in assets disposal;
− use of convertible bonds to reorganise and restructure a firm;
− timing of the conversion and the issuer’s call option;
− majority-minority conflict in venture capital financing;
− duty of loyalty;
− fiduciary duties to preference shareholders; and
− financial contract design for controlling the board’s power in exit events.
Throughout, the analysis includes discussion, comparison, and evaluation of statutory provisions, existing legal standards, and strategies for protection. It is unlikely that a more thorough or informative account exists of the complex regulatory problems created by hybrid financial instruments and of the different ways in which regulatory regimes have responded to the problems they raise. Because business parties in these jurisdictions have a lot of scope and a strong incentive to contract for their rights, this book will also be of uncommon practical value to corporate counsel and financial regulators as well as to interested academics.
This paper presents a preliminary analysis of hotel room prices in several European cities based on the data from Booking.com website. The main question raised in the study is whether early booking is advantageous indeed, and if so, how early should it be? First a script was developed to download more than 600 thousand hotel offers for reservations from 25 March 2013 to 17 March 2014. Then an attempt to discover more details concerning the early booking effect was made via basic statistics, graphical data representation and hedonic pricing analysis. It was revealed that making reservations in advance can be really gainful, although more data and research are needed to measure the exact numbers, as they depend on at least seasonality and city.
Smoking is a problem, bringing signifi cant social and economic costs to Russiansociety. However, ratifi cation of the World health organization Framework conventionon tobacco control makes it possible to improve Russian legislation accordingto the international standards. So, I describe some measures that should be taken bythe Russian authorities in the nearest future, and I examine their effi ciency. By studyingthe international evidence I analyze the impact of the smoke-free areas, advertisementand sponsorship bans, tax increases, etc. on the prevalence of smoking, cigaretteconsumption and some other indicators. I also investigate the obstacles confrontingthe Russian authorities when they introduce new policy measures and the public attitudetowards these measures. I conclude that there is a number of easy-to-implementanti-smoking activities that need no fi nancial resources but only a political will.
One of the most important indicators of company's success is the increase of its value. The article investigates traditional methods of company's value assessment and the evidence that the application of these methods is incorrect in the new stage of economy. So it is necessary to create a new method of valuation based on the new main sources of company's success that is its intellectual capital.