Аггломерационные эффекты, институты и природные ресурсы в изменяющейся экономической географии России
Paper discusses a number of hypotheses as potential explanations of the spatial income distribution in Russia. The hypotheses include the increasing return hypothesis, the institutions hypothesis and the simple and sophisticated versions of the geography hypothesis. According to the existing evidence, the sophisticated geography hypothesis fits best Russian data. This suggests that the changes in spatial income distribution follow the changes in local geographical characteristics and in their economic value.
The article examines recent historical writing about consolidation, development, and expansion of the prison camp system, as well as the role that it played in theSoviet Union’s transition from a dictatorship to an “ordinary” authoritarian regime.
Nowadays systemic interactions subjects of marketing space of territory are an essential object of the researches, devoted to the spatiotemporal paradigm application in the context of market relations development in Russia. The main advantage of the scientific research area, which is based on the spatial approach, is its interdisciplinarity and ability to take advantages of systemic approach and synergy effect in the study of issues related to the spatial organization of economy and management systems, including marketing systems. The paper considers the improvement of approaches, forecasting and hybrid modeling methods, taking into account their dynamics, measurability and evaluation of factors influencing on their spatial relationship and effectiveness of market subjects interactions.
This paper deals with the issues of Russian and international researches in the field of design of information architecture of management systems in the context of spatial economics. At present modern intelligent methods and technologies are essential components for developing management decision process that will enable companies to succeed in a rapidly changing environment. The latest achievements in the field of intelligent technologies in economy and management, including the methods and tools of soft computing are the key factors in improving organizational performance and increasing its competitiveness. The paper is devoted to the study of issues of hybrid intelligent systems and models application to architectural design of management information systems (IS). Fuzzy technologies as technologies of artificial intelligence are having a significant influence on information systems design and analysis. Simultaneously information systems sustainability and adaptiveness are now one of the main drivers of business success. Original contribution of the work is based on the applying of intelligent information technologies and modern modeling methods for creating scoring model of information systems sustainability. It is theoretical and empirical research in equal measure. Research methodology is methods and procedures of modeling. The main purpose of this paper is consideration the features of application of contemporary hybrid intelligent systems and models for spatiotemporal analysis. The paper also contains theoretical foundations of information systems architecture and the brief overview of spatial sciences development in Russia. It does so from a research base that draws from theoretical underpinnings as well as international and domestic industry practices.
Mastering the North was a long-term problem for the Russian state, which at least from the eighteenth century tried to organize the effective use of its resources. This chapter illustrates two very distinct foreign models employed for the “state colonization” of the Russian North in a formative period between the Great Reform of 1861 and Stalin’s industrialization of 1930s: Norway and Canada. Although the use of the Norwegian model for colonization of the Russian North is relatively well studied, “railway colonization” of 1920s is not that well known,and very few works embrace both imperial and early Soviet periods of colonization.
The issue of capital city relocation is a topic of debate for more than forty countries around the world. In this first book to discuss the issue, Vadim Rossman offers an in-depth analysis of the subject, highlighting the global trends and the key factors that motivate different countries to consider such projects, analyzing the outcomes and drawing lessons from recent capital city transfers worldwide for governments and policy-makers.
Rapidly increasing population of the post-reform Russia, which mainly consists of the peasants engaged in the extensive farming, caused a large-scale agrarian crisis in the European part of the country. Three main streams can reduce demographic pressure: colonization of the underdeveloped land on the periphery of the country; seasonal works (otkhodnichestvo) and migration to cities, which also started from the seasonal work.
We modify Paul Krugman’s (1991, J. Polit. Econ 9(3), 483-99) ‘Core-Periphery’ model by replacing the traditional competitive sector by a monopolistically competitive one. We show that the structure of spatial equilibria remains the same as in the original model. This result continues to hold true under Cournot or Bertrand oligopolistic competition with free entry in the traditional sector. The key factor that explains why the nature of competition in the traditional sector does not matter for the spatial equilibria is constant expenditure shares - due to nested Cobb-Douglas and CES preferences - which imply that trade in the traditional sector is independent from its sectoral characteristics.
Smoking is a problem, bringing signifi cant social and economic costs to Russiansociety. However, ratifi cation of the World health organization Framework conventionon tobacco control makes it possible to improve Russian legislation accordingto the international standards. So, I describe some measures that should be taken bythe Russian authorities in the nearest future, and I examine their effi ciency. By studyingthe international evidence I analyze the impact of the smoke-free areas, advertisementand sponsorship bans, tax increases, etc. on the prevalence of smoking, cigaretteconsumption and some other indicators. I also investigate the obstacles confrontingthe Russian authorities when they introduce new policy measures and the public attitudetowards these measures. I conclude that there is a number of easy-to-implementanti-smoking activities that need no fi nancial resources but only a political will.
One of the most important indicators of company's success is the increase of its value. The article investigates traditional methods of company's value assessment and the evidence that the application of these methods is incorrect in the new stage of economy. So it is necessary to create a new method of valuation based on the new main sources of company's success that is its intellectual capital.