Ранняя мысль М. Хайдеггера о технике: между критикой культуры и героическим реализмом
The paper deals with M. Heidegger’s early theory of technology in his rectoral adresses (1933/34). It analyzes the parallels and disjunctures between Heidegger’s idea of «genuine technology» and cultural criticism (L. Klages, G. Simmel, M. Scheler), on the one hand, and «heroic overcoming of cultural criticism» presented by reactionary modernism (E. Jünger, H. Freyer), on the other hand. The purpose of this paper is to show that Heidegger shared neither the optimistic views of technocrats who were intended to force the rationalization and speed up the nihilist process of the «widening desert» nor the pessimistic view of the traditional cultural criticism which sought to restore the traditional order of values and saw in technology nothing but a demonic power. It comes to the conclusion that Heidegger was aware of the clear alternative between the «genuine technology» cooperating with nature and relevant to the Dasein of the German people and the «machination» which turns into the thoughtless production of things, exploitation of natural resources, the total rationalization, and so threatens the whole world.